Protection groups in India

In India, security details are provided to some high-risk individuals by the police and local government. Depending on the threat perception to the person, the category is divided into four tiers: Z+ (highest level), Z, Y and X. Individuals under this security blanket include the President, Vice-President, Prime-Minister, Supreme Court and High Court Judges, Service Chiefs of Indian Armed Forces, Governors of State, Chief Ministers and Cabinet Ministers.[1]

  • SPG category – Strength of security detail is Classified (only provided to the current and former Prime Ministers of India and their immediate family members.)
  • Z+ category has a security cover of 55 personnel [Including 10+ NSG Commando] + [Police Personnel]
  • Z category has a security cover of 22 personnel [Including 4 or 5 NSG Commando] + [Police Personnel]
  • Y category has a security cover of 11 personnel [Including 1 or 2 Commando] + [Police Personnel]
  • X category has a security cover of 2 personnel [No Commando, Only Armed Police Personnel]

The Z+ level of security is provided by National Security Guard commandos. They are armed with Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine guns and modern communication equipment, and each member of the team is adept in martial arts and unarmed combat skills. Currently 17 VIPs are provided with such protection.[2] The ‘Z’ category entails security cover by the Delhi police or the ITBP or CRPF personnel and one escort car. The ‘Y’ category encompasses two personal security officers (PSOs) and the ‘X’ category, one PSO.[3]

The SPG (Special Protection Group), NSG (National Security Guards), ITBP (Indo-Tibetan Border Police) and CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) are the agencies responsible for providing securities to VVIPs, VIPs, politicians, high-profile celebrities and sportspersons. The NSG is used extensively to guard VIPs and VVIPs, especially those in the Z+ category. Many NSG personnel are seconded to the Special Protection Group (SPG) which guards the Prime Minister.[4]


In some cases being placed in a category is viewed as a status symbol by politicians, and many use their clout to secure a Z+ security cover. This is criticized often by media as a waste of taxpayer’s money.[5] Former Home Minister P. Chidambaram phased out the use of the NSG for VIP protection in all but the most serious cases. Nevertheless, controversies arose as many politicians remained under Z+ cover while many bureaucrats were moved down to Y.[citation needed]

In 2014 as a part of Z security, 25 personnel of the Central Reserve Police Force and the Punjab Police were put in attendance for the security of Ashutosh Maharaj, a spiritual leader who has been declared clinically dead by doctors.[6]


Indira Gandhi, former Prime Minister was assassinated by members of her own security detail. Rajbir Singh, a famous encounter specialist was killed in March 2008 despite a Z-level security cover.[7] While under security cover, former Union Minister Pramod Mahajan was shot dead by his brother.


  • ^ “What is X, Y and Z security category?”. Hindustan Times. 7 June 2007. Archived from the original on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 12 May cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ “Naxal threat: Raman Singh gets ‘Z+’ NSG cover”. Hindustan Times. 26 May 2013. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  • ^ “What is X, Y and Z security category?”. Hindustan Times. 7 June 2007. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  • ^ Doval, Nikita (9 June 2015). “Understanding VIP security in India”. Mint. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  • ^ “My security is Z+, what’s yours?”. Daily News and Analysis. 25 July 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  • ^ “For Z security personnel, this dead saint is `alive`”. Patrika Group. 11 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  • ^ “Encounter specialist Rajbir Singh shot dead”. Retrieved 18 May 2017.

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