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Surveillance Spaulder

https://vimeo.com/81324457!.?.!James Bridle/ booktwo.org Produced for Wearable Futures/ http://www.wearablefutures.co/ [Developed for an exhibit context, this movie has no audio] The spaulder is a standard part of

middle ages plate armour, designed to protect the wearer from unseen and also unanticipated impacts from above. The Surveillance Spaulder proceeds this custom right into the here and now day- as well as the electro-magnetic range- signaling the user to the violence of ubiquitous security. The spaulder contains a CCTV detector, based upon a design by confidential safety and security researcher Puking Monkey. The detector filterings system the light it gathers with a 730nm bandpass filter to separate the infrared illumination used in most commonly-deployed CCTV cams. When it receives a signal, it pulses electrical current with a pair of transcutaneous electric nerve excitement( TENS )pads affixed to the user’s shoulder, triggering them to jerk greatly. The spaulder is an inversion of the much more typical operation of wearable innovation, wherein information is gathered as well as produced to the setting as well as the network, determining the individual as well as evaluating. Instead, it concentrates info on the body as well as attracts the user’s attention to the external systems trained after them. A lot more seriously, the spaulder physicalises the policeman in the mind, giving tactile feedback, similar to a faucet on the shoulder, whenever one comes under the look of power, as well as turning the mild caress of the surveillance state right into a sharp tip that we populate a globe of overlapping, unequal and often conflicting details circulations.

Food security

Not to be confused with Food safety.

Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, and individuals’ access to it.[1] There is evidence of granaries being in use over 10,000 years ago, with central authorities in civilizations including ancient China and ancient Egypt being known to release food from storage in times of famine. At the 1974 World Food Conference the term “food security” was defined with an emphasis on supply. Food security, they said, is the “availability at all times of adequate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices”.[2] Later definitions added demand and access issues to the definition. The final report of the 1996 World Food Summit states that food security “exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”.[3][4]

Household food security exists when all members, at all times, have access to enough food for an active, healthy life.[5] Individuals who are food secure do not live in hunger or fear of starvation.[6] Food insecurity, on the other hand, is a situation of “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways”, according to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).[7] Food security incorporates a measure of resilience to future disruption or unavailability of critical food supply due to various risk factors including droughts, shipping disruptions, fuel shortages, economic instability, and wars.[8] In the years 2011–2013, an estimated 842 million people were suffering from chronic hunger.[9] The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, or FAO, identified the four pillars of food security as availability, access, utilization, and stability.[10] The United Nations (UN) recognized the Right to Food in the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948,[6] and has since noted that it is vital for the enjoyment of all other rights.[11]

The 1996 World Summit on Food Security declared that “food should not be used as an instrument for political and economic pressure”.[4] According to the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, failed agriculture market regulation and the lack of anti-dumping mechanisms cause much of the world’s food scarcity and malnutrition.

Contents

  • 1 Measurement
  • 2 Rates
  • 3 Examples of food insecurity
  • 4 Food security by country
    • 4.1 Mexico
    • 4.2 United States
      • 4.2.1 Feed the Future
  • 5 World Summit on Food Security
  • 6 Pillars of food security
    • 6.1 Availability
    • 6.2 Access
    • 6.3 Utilization
    • 6.4 Stability
  • 7 Effects of food insecurity
    • 7.1 Stunting and chronic nutritional deficiencies
  • 8 Challenges to achieving food security
    • 8.1 Global water crisis
    • 8.2 Land degradation
    • 8.3 Climate change
    • 8.4 Agricultural diseases
    • 8.5 Food versus fuel
    • 8.6 Politics
    • 8.7 Food sovereignty
  • 9 Risks to food security
    • 9.1 Population growth
    • 9.2 Fossil fuel dependence
    • 9.3 Homogeneity in the global food supply
    • 9.4 Price setting
    • 9.5 Land use change
    • 9.6 Global catastrophic risks
    • 9.7 Agricultural subsidies in the United States
  • 10 Children and food security
    • 10.1 In the United States
  • 11 Gender and food security
  • 12 Use of genetically modified (GM) crops
    • 12.1 Opposition to GM crops
    • 12.2 Support of GM crops
  • 13 Approaches
    • 13.1 By the United Nations
      • 13.1.1 By the Food and Agriculture Organization
      • 13.1.2 By the World Food Programme
    • 13.2 Global partnerships to achieve food security and end hunger
    • 13.3 By the United States Agency for International Development
    • 13.4 Improving agricultural productivity to benefit the rural poor
    • 13.5 Large-scale food stockpiling
    • 13.6 Agricultural insurances
    • 13.7 Food Justice Movement
    • 13.8 Bees
  • 14 Criticism
  • 15 See also
  • 16 References
  • 17 Sources
  • 18 Further reading
  • 19 External links

Measurement[edit]

Food security can be measured by calorie intake per person per day.[12][13] In general the objective of food security indicators and measures is to capture some or all of the main components of food security in terms of food availability, access and utilization or adequacy. While availability (production and supply) and utilization/adequacy (nutritional status/anthropometric measures) seemed much easier to estimate, thus more popular, access (ability to acquire sufficient quantity and quality) remain largely elusive.[14] The factors influencing household food access are often context specific. Thus the financial and technical demands of collecting and analyzing data on all aspects of household’s experience of food access and the development of valid and clear measures remain a huge challenge.[15] Nevertheless, several measures have been developed that aim to capture the access component of food security, with some notable examples developed by the USAID-funded Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) project, collaborating with Cornell and Tufts University and Africare and World Vision.[15][16][17][18] These include:

  • Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) – continuous measure of the degree of food insecurity (access) in the household in the previous month
  • Household Dietary Diversity Scale (HDDS) – measures the number of different food groups consumed over a specific reference period (24hrs/48hrs/7days).
  • Household Hunger Scale (HHS)- measures the experience of household food deprivation based on a set of predictable reactions, captured through a survey and summarized in a scale.
  • Coping Strategies Index (CSI) – assesses household behaviours and rates them based on a set of varied established behaviours on how households cope with food shortages. The methodology for this research is based on collecting data on a single question: “What do you do when you do not have enough food, and do not have enough money to buy food?”[19][20][21]

Food insecurity is measured in the United States by questions in the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey. The questions asked are about anxiety that the household budget is inadequate to buy enough food, inadequacy in the quantity or quality of food eaten by adults and children in the household, and instances of reduced food intake or consequences of reduced food intake for adults and for children.[22] A National Academy of Sciences study commissioned by the USDA criticized this measurement and the relationship of “food security” to hunger, adding “it is not clear whether hunger is appropriately identified as the extreme end of the food security scale.”[23]

The FAO, World Food Programme (WFP), and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) collaborate to produce The State of Food Insecurity in the World. The 2012 edition described improvements made by the FAO to the prevalence of undernourishment (PoU) indicator that is used to measure rates of food insecurity. New features include revised minimum dietary energy requirements for individual countries, updates to the world population data, and estimates of food losses in retail distribution for each country. Measurements that factor into the indicator include dietary energy supply, food production, food prices, food expenditures, and volatility of the food system.[24] The stages of food insecurity range from food secure situations to full-scale famine.[25] A new peer-reviewed journal, Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, began publishing in 2009.[26]

Rates[edit]

Number of people affected by undernourishment in 2010–12 (by region, in millions)[27]

With its prevalence of undernourishment (PoU) indicator, the FAO reported that almost 870 million people were chronically undernourished in the years 2010–2012. This represents 12.5% of the global population, or 1 in 8 people. Higher rates occur in developing countries, where 852 million people (about 15% of the population) are chronically undernourished. The report noted that Asia and Latin America have achieved reductions in rates of undernourishment that put these regions on track for achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of undernourishment by 2015.[24] The UN noted that about 2 billion people do not consume a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals.[28] In India, the second-most populous country in the world, 30 million people have been added to the ranks of the hungry since the mid-1990s and 46% of children are underweight.[29]

Examples of food insecurity[edit]

Famines have been frequent in world history. Some have killed millions and substantially diminished the population of a large area. The most common causes have been drought and war, but the greatest famines in history were caused by economic policy.

Further information: List of famines

Food security by country[edit]

Afghanistan

Afghanistan about 35% of household is food insecure. Prevalence of under-weight, stunting, and wasting in children under 5 years of age is also very high.[30]

Mexico[edit]

Main article: Food Security in Mexico

Food insecurity has distressed Mexico throughout its history and continues to do so in the present. Food availability is not the issue; rather, severe deficiencies in the accessibility of food contributes to the insecurity. Between 2003 and 2005, the total Mexican food supply was well above the sufficient to meet the requirements of the Mexican population, averaging 3,270 kilocalories per daily capita, higher than the minimum requirements of 1,850 kilocalories per daily capita. However, at least 10 percent of the population in every Mexican state suffers from inadequate food access. In nine states, 25–35 percent live in food-insecure households. More than 10 percent of the populations of seven Mexica states fall into the category of Serious Food Insecurity.[31]

The issue of food inaccessibility is magnified by chronic child malnutrition as well as obesity in children, adolescents, and family.[32]

Mexico is vulnerable to drought which can further cripple agriculture.[33]

United States[edit]

Further information: Food security in the United States

The United States Department of Agriculture defines food insecurity as “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.”[34] Food security is defined by the USDA as “access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life.”[35]

National Food Security Surveys are the main survey tool used by the USDA to measure food security in the United States. Based on respondents’ answers to survey questions, the household can be placed on a continuum of food security defined by the USDA. This continuum has four categories: high food security, marginal food security, low food security, and very low food security.[34] Economic Research Service report number 155 (ERS-155) estimates that 14.5 percent (17.6 million) of US households were food insecure at some point in 2012. The prevalence of food insecurity has been relatively in the United States since the economic recession 2008.

In 2012:

  • 49.0 million people lived in food-insecure households.
  • 12.4 million adults lived in households with very low food security.
  • 8.3 million children lived in food-insecure households in which children, along with adults, were food insecure.
  • 977,000 children lived in households in which one or more child experienced very low food security.[36]

Feed the Future[edit]

In 2010 the government of the United States began the Feed the Future Initiative.[37] This initiative is expected to work on the basis of country-led priorities that call for consistent support by the governments, donor organizations, the private sector, and the civil society to accomplish its long-term goals.[37]

Further information: Feed the Future Initiative

World Summit on Food Security[edit]

The World Summit on Food Security, held in Rome in 1996, aimed to renew a global commitment to the fight against hunger. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) called the summit in response to widespread under-nutrition and growing concern about the capacity of agriculture to meet future food needs. The conference produced two key documents, the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action.[4][38]

The Rome Declaration called for the members of the United Nations to work to halve the number of chronically undernourished people on the Earth by the year 2015. The Plan of Action set a number of targets for government and non-governmental organizations for achieving food security, at the individual, household, national, regional and global levels.

Another World Summit on Food Security took place at the FAO’s headquarters in Rome between November 16 and 18, 2009.[39] The decision to convene the summit was taken by the Council of FAO in June 2009, at the proposal of FAO Director-General Dr Jacques Diouf. Heads of state and government attended this summit.

Pillars of food security[edit]

The WHO states that there are negative one pillars that determine food security: food availability, food access, and food use.[40] The FAO adds a fourth pillar: the stability of the first three dimensions of food security over time.[6] In 2009, the World Summit on Food Security stated that the “four pillars of food security are availability, access, utilization, and stability”.[10]

Availability[edit]

Growth in food production has been greater than population growth. Food per person increased since 1961. Data source: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Food availability relates to the supply of food through production, distribution, and exchange.[41] Food production is determined by a variety of factors including land ownership and use; soil management; crop selection, breeding, and management; livestock breeding and management; and harvesting.[42] Crop production can be affected by changes in rainfall and temperatures.[41] The use of land, water, and energy to grow food often competes with other uses, which can affect food production.[43] Land used for agriculture can be used for urbanization or lost to desertification, salinization, and soil erosion due to unsustainable agricultural practices.[43] Crop production is not required for a country to achieve food security. Nations don’t have to have the natural resources required to produce crops in order to achieve food security, as seen in the examples of Japan[44][45] and Singapore.[46]

Because food consumers outnumber producers in every country,[46] food must be distributed to different regions or nations. Food distribution involves the storage, processing, transport, packaging, and marketing of food.[42] Food-chain infrastructure and storage technologies on farms can also affect the amount of food wasted in the distribution process.[43] Poor transport infrastructure can increase the price of supplying water and fertilizer as well as the price of moving food to national and global markets.[43] Around the world, few individuals or households are continuously self-reliant for food. This creates the need for a bartering, exchange, or cash economy to acquire food.[41] The exchange of food requires efficient trading systems and market institutions, which can affect food security.[47] Per capita world food supplies are more than adequate to provide food security to all, and thus food accessibility is a greater barrier to achieving food security.[46]

Access[edit]

Goats are an important part of the solution to global food security because they are fairly low-maintenance and easy to raise and farm.

Food access refers to the affordability and allocation of food, as well as the preferences of individuals and households.[41] The UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights noted that the causes of hunger and malnutrition are often not a scarcity of food but an inability to access available food, usually due to poverty.[11] Poverty can limit access to food, and can also increase how vulnerable an individual or household is to food price spikes.[47] Access depends on whether the household has enough income to purchase food at prevailing prices or has sufficient land and other resources to grow its own food.[48] Households with enough resources can overcome unstable harvests and local food shortages and maintain their access to food.[46]

There are two distinct types of access to food: direct access, in which a household produces food using human and material resources, and economic access, in which a household purchases food produced elsewhere.[42] Location can affect access to food and which type of access a family will rely on.[48] The assets of a household, including income, land, products of labor, inheritances, and gifts can determine a household’s access to food.[42] However, the ability to access sufficient food may not lead to the purchase of food over other materials and services.[47] Demographics and education levels of members of the household as well as the gender of the household head determine the preferences of the household, which influences the type of food that are purchased.[48] A household’s access to enough and nutritious food may not assure adequate food intake of all household members, as intrahousehold food allocation may not sufficiently meet the requirements of each member of the household.[47] The USDA adds that access to food must be available in socially acceptable ways, without, for example, resorting to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies.[5]

Utilization[edit]

The next pillar of food security is food utilization, which refers to the metabolism of food by individuals.[46] Once food is obtained by a household, a variety of factors affect the quantity and quality of food that reaches members of the household. In order to achieve food security, the food ingested must be safe and must be enough to meet the physiological requirements of each individual.[47] Food safety affects food utilization,[41] and can be affected by the preparation, processing, and cooking of food in the community and household.[42] Nutritional values[41] of the household determine food choice,[42] and whether food meets cultural preferences is important to utilization in terms of psychological and social well-being.[49] Access to healthcare is another determinant of food utilization, since the health of individuals controls how the food is metabolized.[42] For example, intestinal parasites can take nutrients from the body and decrease food utilization.[46] Sanitation can also decrease the occurrence and spread of diseases that can affect food utilization.[42] Education about nutrition and food preparation can affect food utilization and improve this pillar of food security.[46]

Stability[edit]

Food stability refers to the ability to obtain food over time. Food insecurity can be transitory, seasonal, or chronic.[42] In transitory food insecurity, food may be unavailable during certain periods of time.[47] At the food production level, natural disasters[47] and drought[42] result in crop failure and decreased food availability. Civil conflicts can also decrease access to food.[47] Instability in markets resulting in food-price spikes can cause transitory food insecurity. Other factors that can temporarily cause food insecurity are loss of employment or productivity, which can be caused by illness. Seasonal food insecurity can result from the regular pattern of growing seasons in food production.[42]

Chronic (or permanent) food insecurity is defined as the long-term, persistent lack of adequate food.[47] In this case, households are constantly at risk of being unable to acquire food to meet the needs of all members. Chronic and transitory food insecurity are linked, since the reoccurrence of transitory food security can make households more vulnerable to chronic food insecurity.[42]

Effects of food insecurity[edit]

Famine and hunger are both rooted in food insecurity. Chronic food insecurity translates into a high degree of vulnerability to famine and hunger; ensuring food security presupposes elimination of that vulnerability.[25]

Stunting and chronic nutritional deficiencies[edit]

See also: Malnutrition

Children with symptoms of low calorie and protein intake and a nurse attendant at a Nigerian orphanage in the late 1960s

Many countries experience ongoing food shortages and distribution problems. These result in chronic and often widespread hunger amongst significant numbers of people. Human populations can respond to chronic hunger and malnutrition by decreasing body size, known in medical terms as stunting or stunted growth.[citation needed] This process starts in utero if the mother is malnourished and continues through approximately the third year of life. It leads to higher infant and child mortality, but at rates far lower than during famines.[citation needed] Once stunting has occurred, improved nutritional intake after the age of about two years is unable to reverse the damage. Stunting itself can be viewed as a coping mechanism, bringing body size into alignment with the calories available during adulthood in the location where the child is born.[citation needed] Limiting body size as a way of adapting to low levels of energy (calories) adversely affects health in three ways:[citation needed]

  • Premature failure of vital organs during adulthood. For example, a 50-year-old individual might die of heart failure because his/her heart suffered structural defects during early development;
  • Stunted individuals suffer a higher rate of disease and illness than those who have not undergone stunting;
  • Severe malnutrition in early childhood often leads to defects in cognitive development.[50] It therefore creates disparity among children who did not experience severe malnutrition and those who experience it.

Challenges to achieving food security[edit]

Global water crisis[edit]

See also: Water resource policy

Irrigation canals have opened dry desert areas of Egypt to agriculture.

Water deficits, which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries,[51] may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India.[52] The water tables are falling in scores of countries (including northern China, the US, and India) due to widespread overpumping using powerful diesel and electric pumps. Other countries affected include Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. This will eventually lead to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. Even with the overpumping of its aquifers, China is developing a grain deficit.[53] When this happens, it will almost certainly drive grain prices upward. Most of the 3 billion people projected to be born worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. After China and India, there is a second tier of smaller countries with large water deficits – Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, and Pakistan. Four of these already import a large share of their grain. Only Pakistan remains self-sufficient. But with a population expanding by 4 million a year, it will likely soon turn to the world market for grain.[54]

Regionally, Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of water-stressed countries of any place on the globe, as of an estimated 800 million people who live in Africa, 300 million live in a water-stressed environment.[55] It is estimated that by 2030, 75 million to 250 million people in Africa will be living in areas of high water stress, which will likely displace anywhere between 24 million and 700 million people as conditions become increasingly unlivable.[55] Because the majority of Africa remains dependent on an agricultural lifestyle and 80 to 90 percent of all families in rural Africa rely upon producing their own food,[56] water scarcity translates to a loss of food security.

Multimillion-dollar investments beginning in the 1990s by the World Bank have reclaimed desert and turned the Ica Valley in Peru, one of the driest places on earth, into the largest supplier of asparagus in the world. However, the constant irrigation has caused a rapid drop in the water table, in some places as much as eight meters per year, one of the fastest rates of aquifer depletion in the world. The wells of small farmers and local people are beginning to run dry and the water supply for the main city in the valley is under threat. As a cash crop, asparagus has provided jobs for local people, but most of the money goes to the buyers, mainly the British. A 2010 report concluded that the industry is not sustainable and accuses investors, including the World Bank, of failing to take proper responsibility for the effect of their decisions on the water resources of poorer countries.[57] Diverting water from the headwaters of the Ica River to asparagus fields has also led to a water shortage in the mountain region of Huancavelica, where indigenous communities make a marginal living herding.[58]

Land degradation[edit]

See also: Land degradation and Desertification

Intensive farming often leads to a vicious cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility and decline of agricultural yields.[59] Approximately 40 percent of the world’s agricultural land is seriously degraded.[60] In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25 percent of its population by 2025, according to UNU’s Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.[61]

Climate change[edit]

See also: Climate change and agriculture

Extreme events, such as droughts and floods, are forecast to increase as climate change and global warming takes hold.[62] Ranging from overnight floods to gradually worsening droughts, these will have a range of effects on the agricultural sector. According to the Climate & Development Knowledge Network report Managing Climate Extremes and Disasters in the Agriculture Sectors: Lessons from the IPCC SREX Report, the effects will include changing productivity and livelihood patterns, economic losses, and effects on infrastructure, markets and food security. Food security in future will be linked to our ability to adapt agricultural systems to extreme events. An example of a shifting weather pattern would be a rise in temperatures. As temperatures rise due to climate change there is a risk of a diminished food supply due to heat damage.[63]

Approximately 2.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers.[64] India, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by severe droughts in coming decades.[65] In India alone, the Ganges provides water for drinking and farming for more than 500 million people.[66][67] The west coast of North America, which gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada, also would be affected.[68] Glaciers aren’t the only worry that the developing nations have; sea level is reported to rise as climate change progresses, reducing the amount of land available for agriculture.[69][70]

In other parts of the world, a big effect will be low yields of grain according to the World Food Trade Model, specifically in the low latitude regions where much of the developing world is located. From this the price of grain will rise, along with the developing nations trying to grow the grain. Due to this, every 2–2.5% price hike will increase the number of hungry people by 1%.[citation needed] Low crop yields are just one of the problem facing farmers in the low latitudes and tropical regions. The timing and length of the growing seasons, when farmers plant their crops, are going to be changing dramatically, per the USDA, due to unknown changes in soil temperature and moisture conditions.[71]

Another way of thinking about food security and climate change comes from Evan Fraser, a geographer working at the University of Guelph in Ontario Canada. His approach is to explore the vulnerability of food systems to climate change and he defines vulnerability to climate change as situations that occur when relatively minor environmental problems cause major effects on food security. Examples of this include the Irish Potato Famine[72][dubious – discuss], which was caused by a rainy year that created ideal conditions for the fungal blight to spread in potato fields, or the Ethiopian Famine in the early 1980s.[73] Three factors stand out as common in such cases, and these three factors act as a diagnostic “tool kit” through which to identify cases where food security may be vulnerable to climate change. These factors are: (1) specialized agro-ecosystems; (2) households with very few livelihood options other than farming; (3) situations where formal institutions do not provide adequate safety nets to protect people.[73] “The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) estimates that an additional US$ 7.1–7.3 billion per year are needed in agricultural investments to offset the negative effect of climate change on nutrition for children by 2050 (Table 6).”[74]

“Results show that climate change is likely to reduce agricultural production, thus reducing food availability” (Brown etal., 2008.) “The food security threat posed by climate change is greatest for Africa, where agricultural yields and per capita food production has been steadily declining, and where population growth will double the demand for food, water, and livestock forage in the next 30 years” (Devereux et al., 2004).In 2060, the hungry population could range from 641 million to 2087 million with climate change (Chen et al., 1994). By the year 2030, Cereal crops will decrease from 15 to 19 percent, temperatures are estimated to rise from 1 degrees Celsius to 2. 75 degrees Celsius, which will lead to less rainfall, which will all result in an increase in food insecurity in 2030 (Devereux etal, 2004). In prediction farming countries will be the worst sectors hit, hot countries and drought countries will reach even higher temperatures and richer countries will be hit the least as they have more access to more resources (Devereux et al. 2004). From a food security perspective, climate change is the dominant rationale to the increase in recent years and predicted years to come.

Agricultural diseases[edit]

Diseases affecting livestock or crops can have devastating effects on food availability especially if there are no contingency plans in place. For example, Ug99, a lineage of wheat stem rust which can cause up to 100% crop losses, is present in wheat fields in several countries in Africa and the Middle East and is predicted to spread rapidly through these regions and possibly further afield, potentially causing a wheat production disaster that would affect food security worldwide.[75][76]

The genetic diversity of the crop wild relatives of wheat can be used to improve modern varieties to be more resistant to rust. In their centers of origin wild wheat plants are screened for resistance to rust, then their genetic information is studied and finally wild plants and modern varieties are crossed through means of modern plant breeding in order to transfer the resistance genes from the wild plants to the modern varieties.[77][78]

Food versus fuel[edit]

Main article: Food versus fuel

Farmland and other agricultural resources have long been used to produce non-food crops including industrial materials such as cotton, flax, and rubber; drug crops such as tobacco and opium, and biofuels such as firewood, etc. In the 21st century the production of fuel crops has increased, adding to this diversion. However technologies are also developed to commercially produce food from energy such as natural gas and electrical energy with tiny water and land foot print.[79][80][81][82]

Politics[edit]

See also: Political corruption

Nobel Prize winning economist Amartya Sen observed that “there is no such thing as an apolitical food problem.”[citation needed] While drought and other naturally occurring events may trigger famine conditions, it is government action or inaction that determines its severity, and often even whether or not a famine will occur. The 20th century has examples of governments, as in Collectivization in the Soviet Union or the Great Leap Forward in the People’s Republic of China undermining the food security of their own nations. Mass starvation is frequently a weapon of war, as in the blockade of Germany, the Battle of the Atlantic, and the blockade of Japan during World War I and World War II and in the Hunger Plan enacted by Nazi Germany.

Governments sometimes have a narrow base of support, built upon cronyism and patronage. Fred Cuny pointed out in 1999 that under these conditions: “The distribution of food within a country is a political issue. Governments in most countries give priority to urban areas, since that is where the most influential and powerful families and enterprises are usually located. The government often neglects subsistence farmers and rural areas in general. The more remote and underdeveloped the area the less likely the government will be to effectively meet its needs. Many agrarian policies, especially the pricing of agricultural commodities, discriminate against rural areas. Governments often keep prices of basic grains at such artificially low levels that subsistence producers cannot accumulate enough capital to make investments to improve their production. Thus, they are effectively prevented from getting out of their precarious situation.”[83]

Dictators and warlords[who?] have used food as a political weapon, rewarding supporters while denying food supplies to areas that oppose their rule. Under such conditions food becomes a currency with which to buy support and famine becomes an effective weapon against opposition.[original research?]

Governments[which?] with strong tendencies towards kleptocracy can undermine food security even when harvests are good. When government monopolizes trade, farmers may find that they are free to grow cash crops for export, but under penalty of law only able to sell their crops to government buyers at prices far below the world market price.[original research?] The government then is free to sell their crop on the world market at full price, pocketing the difference.

When the rule of law is absent, or private property is non-existent, farmers have little incentive to improve their productivity.[according to whom?] If a farm becomes noticeably more productive than neighboring farms, it may become the target of individuals well connected to the government. Rather than risk being noticed and possibly losing their land, farmers may be content with the perceived safety of mediocrity.[citation needed]

As pointed out by William Bernstein in The Birth of Plenty: “Individuals without property are susceptible to starvation, and it is much easier to bend the fearful and hungry to the will of the state. If a [farmer’s] property can be arbitrarily threatened by the state, that power will inevitably be employed to intimidate those with divergent political and religious opinions.”[citation needed]

Food sovereignty[edit]

The approach known as food sovereignty views the business practices of multinational corporations as a form of neocolonialism. It contends that multinational corporations have the financial resources available to buy up the agricultural resources of impoverished nations, particularly in the tropics. They also have the political clout to convert these resources to the exclusive production of cash crops for sale to industrialized nations outside of the tropics, and in the process to squeeze the poor off of the more productive lands.[58] Under this view subsistence farmers are left to cultivate only lands that are so marginal in terms of productivity as to be of no interest to the multinational corporations. Likewise, food sovereignty holds it to be true that communities should be able to define their own means of production and that food is a basic human right. With several multinational corporations now pushing agricultural technologies on developing countries, technologies that include improved seeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides, crop production has become an increasingly analyzed and debated issue. Many communities calling for food sovereignty are protesting the imposition of Western technologies on to their indigenous systems and agency.[citation needed]

Risks to food security[edit]

Further information: 2007–2008 world food price crisis and Food prices

Population growth[edit]

Further information: World population

A family planning placard in Ethiopia. It shows some negative effects of having too many children.

Current UN projections show a continued increase in population in the future (but a steady decline in the population growth rate), with the global population expected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100.[84] Estimates by the UN Population Division for the year 2150 range between 3.2 and 24.8 billion;[85] mathematical modeling supports the lower estimate.[86] Some analysts have questioned the sustainability of further world population growth, highlighting the growing pressures on the environment, global food supplies, and energy resources. Solutions for feeding the extra billions in the future are being studied and documented.[87] One out of every seven people on our planet go to sleep hungry. People are suffering due to overpopulation, 25,000 people die of malnutrition and hunger related diseases everyday.

Fossil fuel dependence[edit]

Further information: Agriculture and petroleum and Peak oil’s effects on agriculture

While agricultural output has increased, energy consumption to produce a crop has also increased at a greater rate, so that the ratio of crops produced to energy input has decreased over time. Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, many of which are petroleum products, making agriculture increasingly reliant on petroleum.

Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fueled irrigation.[88]

David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario Giampietro, senior researcher at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (NRIFN), place in their study Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 210 million. To achieve a sustainable economy and avert disaster, the United States must reduce its population by at least one-third, and world population will have to be reduced by two-thirds, says the study.[89]

The authors of this study believe that the mentioned agricultural crisis will only begin to affect us after 2020, and will not become critical until 2050. The oncoming peaking of global oil production (and subsequent decline of production), along with the peak of North American natural gas production will very likely precipitate this agricultural crisis much sooner than expected.[90] Geologist Dale Allen Pfeiffer claims that coming decades could see spiraling food prices without relief and massive starvation on a global level such as never experienced before.[91]

Homogeneity in the global food supply[edit]

A small number of major crops, e.g. Soybean, have formed an increasing share of the food energy, protein, fat, and food weight eaten by the world’s population over the past 50 years[92]

Since 1961, human diets across the world have become more diverse in the consumption of major commodity staple crops, with a corollary decline in consumption of local or regionally important crops, and thus have become more homogeneous globally.[92] The differences between the foods eaten in different countries were reduced by 68% between 1961 and 2009. The modern “global standard”[92] diet contains an increasingly large percentage of a relatively small number of major staple commodity crops, which have increased substantially in the share of the total food energy (calories), protein, fat, and food weight that they provide to the world’s human population, including wheat, rice, sugar, maize, soybean (by +284%[93]), palm oil (by +173%[93]), and sunflower (by +246%[93]). Whereas nations used to consume greater proportions of locally or regionally important crops, wheat has become a staple in over 97% of countries, with the other global staples showing similar dominance worldwide. Other crops have declined sharply over the same period, including rye, yam, sweet potato (by −45%[93]), cassava (by −38%[93]), coconut, sorghum (by −52%[93]) and millets (by −45%[93]).[92][93][94] Such crop diversity change in the human diet is associated with mixed effects on food security, improving under-nutrition in some regions but contributing to the diet-related diseases caused by over-consumption of macronutrients.[92]

Price setting[edit]

On April 30, 2008, Thailand, one of the world’s biggest rice exporters, announced the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries with the potential to develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice. It is a project to organize 21 rice exporting countries to create a homonymous organisation to control the price of rice. The group is mainly made up of Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar. The organization attempts to serve the purpose of making a “contribution to ensuring food stability, not just in an individual country but also to address food shortages in the region and the world”. However, it is still questionable whether this organization will serve its role as an effective rice price fixing cartel, that is similar to OPEC’s mechanism for managing petroleum. Economic analysts and traders said the proposal would go nowhere because of the inability of governments to cooperate with each other and control farmers’ output. Moreover, countries that are involved expressed their concern, that this could only worsen the food security.[95][96][97][98]

Land use change[edit]

China needs not less than 120 million hectares of arable land for its food security. China has recently reported a surplus of 15 million hectares. On the other side of the coin, some 4 million hectares of conversion to urban use and 3 million hectares of contaminated land have been reported as well.[99] Furthermore, a survey found that 2.5% of China’s arable land is too contaminated to grow food without harm.[100] In Europe, the conversion of agricultural soil implied a net loss of potential. But the rapid loss in the area of arable soils appears to be economically meaningless because EU is perceived to be dependent on internal food supply anymore. During the period 2000–2006 the European Union lost 0.27% of its cropland and 0.26% of its crop productive potential. The loss of agricultural land during the same time was the highest in the Netherlands, which lost 1.57% of its crop production potential within six years. The figures are quite alarming for Cyprus (0.84%), Ireland (0.77%) and Spain (0.49%) as well.[101] In Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna plain (ERP), the conversion of 15,000 hectare of agricultural soil (period 2003-2008) implied a net loss of 109,000 Mg per year of wheat, which accounts for the calories needed by 14% of ERP population (425,000 people). Such a loss in wheat production is just 0.02% of gross domestic product (GDP) of the Emilia-Romagna region which is actually a minor effect in financial terms. Additionally, the income from the new land use is often much higher than the one guaranteed by agriculture, as in the case of urbanisation or extraction of raw materials.[102]

Global catastrophic risks[edit]

Further information: Global catastrophic risk

As anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions reduce the stability of the global climate,[103] abrupt climate change could become more intense.[104] The impact of an asteroid or comet larger than about 1 km diameter has the potential to block the sun globally,[105] causing impact winter. Particles in the troposphere would quickly rain out, but particles in the stratosphere, especially sulfate, could remain there for years.[105] Similarly, a supervolcanic eruption would reduce the potential of agricultural production from solar photosynthesis, causing volcanic winter. The Toba super volcanic eruption approximately 70,000 years ago may have nearly caused the extinction of humans[105] (see Toba catastrophe theory). Again, primarily sulfate particles could block the sun for years. Solar blocking is not limited to natural causes as nuclear winter is also possible, which refers to the scenario involving widespread nuclear war and burning of cities that release soot into the stratosphere that would stay there for about 10 years.[106] The high stratospheric temperatures produced by soot absorbing solar radiation would create near-global ozone hole conditions even for a regional nuclear conflict.[107]

Agricultural subsidies in the United States[edit]

Agricultural subsidies are paid to farmers and agribusinesses to supplement their income, manage the supply of their commodities and influence the cost and supply of those commodities.[108] In the United States, the main crops the government subsidizes contribute to the obesity problem; since 1995, $300 billion have gone to crops that are used to create junk food.[109]

Taxpayers heavily subsidize corn and soy, which are main ingredients in processed foods and fatty foods which the government does not encourage,[109] and used to fatten livestock. Half of farmland is devoted to corn and soy, the rest is wheat. Soy and corn can be found in sweeteners like high fructose corn syrup.[109] Over $19 billion during the prior 18 years to 2013 was spent to incent farmers to grow these crops,[109] raising the price of fruits and vegetables by about 40% and lowering the price of dairy and other animal products. Little land is used for fruit and vegetable farming.[110]

Corn, a pillar of American agriculture for years, is now mainly used for ethanol, high fructose corn syrup and bio-based plastics.[111] About 40 percent of corn is used for ethanol and 36% is used as animal feed.[111] Only a tiny fraction of corn is used as a food source, much of that fraction is used for high-fructose corn syrup, which is a main ingredient in processed, unhealthy junk food.[111]

People who ate the most subsidized food had a 37% higher risk of being obese compared to people who ate the least amount of subsidized food.[112] This brings up the concern that minority communities are more prone to risks of obesity due to financial limitations. The subsidies result in those commodities being cheap to the public, compared to those recommended by dietary guidelines.

President Trump proposed a 21% cut to government discretionary spending in the agriculture sector, which has met partisan resistance.[113] This budget proposal would also reduce spending on the Special Supplement Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, albeit less than President Obama did.[113]

Further information: Agricultural policy of the United States

Children and food security[edit]

Bengali famine, 1943. The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India’s main supply of rice imports.[114]

On April 29, 2008, a UNICEF UK report found that the world’s poorest and most vulnerable children are being hit the hardest by climate change. The report, “Our Climate, Our Children, Our Responsibility: The Implications of Climate Change for the World’s Children”, says that access to clean water and food supplies will become more difficult, particularly in Africa and Asia.[115]

In the United States[edit]

By way of comparison, in one of the largest food producing countries in the world, the United States, approximately one out of six people are “food insecure”, including 17 million children, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.[116] A 2012 study in the Journal of Applied Research on Children found that rates of food security varied significantly by race, class and education. In both kindergarten and third grade, 8% of the children were classified as food insecure, but only 5% of white children were food insecure, while 12% and 15% of black and Hispanic children were food insecure, respectively. In third grade, 13% of black and 11% of Hispanic children are food insecure compared to 5% of white children.[117][118]

There are also striking regional variations in food security. Although food insecurity can be difficult to measure, 45% of elementary and secondary students in Maine qualify for free or reduced-price school lunch; by some measures Maine has been declared the most food-insecure of the New England states.[119] Transportation challenges and distance are common barriers to families in rural areas who seek food assistance. Social stigma is another important consideration, and for children, sensitively administering in-school programs can make the difference between success and failure. For instance, when John Woods, co-founder of Full Plates, Full Potential,[120] learned that embarrassed students were shying away from the free breakfasts being distributed at a school he was working with, he made arrangements to provide breakfast free of charge to all of the students there.[121]

According to a 2015 Congressional Budget Office report on child nutrition programs, it is more likely that food insecure children will participate in school nutrition programs than children from food secure families.[122] School nutrition programs, such as the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP) have provided millions of children access to healthier lunch and breakfast meals, since their inceptions in the mid-1900s. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NSLP has served over 300 million, while SBP has served about 10 million students each day.[123] Nevertheless, far too many qualifying students still fail to receive these benefits simply due to not submitting the necessary paperwork.[124] Multiple studies have reported that school nutrition programs play an important role in ensuring students are accessing healthy meals. Students who ate school lunches provided by NLSP showed higher diet quality than if they had their own lunches.[125] Even more, the USDA improved standards for school meals, which ultimately lead to positive impacts on children’s food selection and eating habits.[126]

Countless partnerships have emerged in the quest for food security. A number of federal nutrition programs exist to provide food specifically for children, including the Summer Food Service Program, Special Milk Program (SMP) and Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), and community and state organizations often network with these programs. The Summer Food Program in Bangor, Maine, is run by the Bangor Housing Authority and sponsored by Good Shepherd Food Bank.[119] In turn, Waterville Maine’s Thomas College, for example, is among the organizations holding food drives to collect donations for Good Shepherd.[127] Children whose families qualify for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) or Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) may also receive food assistance. WIC alone served approximately 7.6 million participants, 75% of which are children and infants.[128]

Despite the sizable populations served by these programs, Conservatives have regularly targeted these programs for defunding.[129] Conservatives’ arguments against school nutrition programs include fear of wasting food and fraud from applications. On January 23, 2017, H.R.610 was introduced to the House by Republican Representative Steve King. The bill seeks to repeal a rule set by the Food and Nutrition Service of the Department of Agriculture, which mandates schools to provide more nutritious and diverse foods across the food plate.[130] Two months later, the Trump administration released a preliminary 2018 budget that proposed a $2 billion cut from WIC.[131]

Food insecurity in children can lead to developmental impairments and long term consequences such as weakened physical, intellectual and emotional development.[132]

Food insecurity also related to obesity for people living in neighborhoods where nutritious food are unavailable or unaffordable.[133]

Gender and food security[edit]

Main article: Gender and food security

A Kenyan woman farmer at work in the Mount Kenya region

Gender inequality both leads to and is a result of food insecurity. According to estimates women and girls make up 60% of the world’s chronically hungry and little progress has been made in ensuring the equal right to food for women enshrined in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.[134][135] Women face discrimination both in education and employment opportunities and within the household, where their bargaining power is lower. Women’s employment is essential for not only advancing gender equality within the workforce, but ensuring a sustainable future as it means less pressure for high birth rates and net migration.[136] On the other hand, gender equality is described as instrumental to ending malnutrition and hunger.[137] Women tend to be responsible for food preparation and childcare within the family and are more likely to spend their income on food and their children’s needs.[138] Women also play an important role in food production, processing, distribution and marketing. They often work as unpaid family workers, are involved in subsistence farming and represent about 43% of the agricultural labor force in developing countries, varying from 20% in Latin America to 50% in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. However, women face discrimination in access to land, credit, technologies, finance and other services. Empirical studies suggest that if women had the same access to productive resources as men, women could boost their yields by 20–30%; raising the overall agricultural output in developing countries by 2.5 to 4%. While those are rough estimates, the significant benefit of closing the gender gap on agricultural productivity cannot be denied.[139] The gendered aspects of food security are visible along the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization and stability, as defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization.[140]

The number of people affected by hunger is extremely high, with enormous effects on women and girls.[141] Making this trend disappear “must be a top priority for governments and international institutions”.[141] Actions governments take must take into consideration that food insecurity is an issue regarding “equality, rights and social justice”.[141] “Food and nutrition insecurity is a political and economic phenomenon fuelled by inequitable global and national processes”.[141] Factors like capitalism, exploration of Indigenous lands all contribute to food insecurity for minorities and the people who are the most oppressed in various countries (women being one of these oppressed groups). To emphasis, “food and nutrition insecurity is a gender justice issue”.[141] The facts that women and girls are the most oppressed by “the inequitable global economic processes that govern food systems and by global trends such as climate change”, shows how institutions continue to place women in positions of disadvantage and impoverishment to make money and thrive on capitalizing the food system.[141] When the government withholds food by raising its prices to amounts only privileged people can afford, they both benefit and are able to control the “lower-class”/ marginalized people via the food market. An interesting fact is that “despite rapid economic growth in India, thousands of women and girls still lack food and nutrition security as a direct result of their lower status compared with men and boys”.[141] “Such inequalities are compounded by women and girls’ often limited access to productive resources, education and decision-making, by the ‘normalised’ burden of unpaid work – including care work – and by the endemic problems of gender-based violence (GBV), HIV and AIDS”.[141]

Use of genetically modified (GM) crops[edit]

One of the most up-and-coming techniques to ensuring global food security is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops. The genome of these crops can be altered to address one or more aspects of the plant that may be preventing it from being grown in various regions under certain conditions. Many of these alterations can address the challenges that were previously mentioned above, including the water crisis, land degradation, and the ever-changing climate.

In agriculture and animal husbandry, the Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield by creating “high-yielding varieties”. Often the handful of hybridized breeds originated in developed countries and were further hybridized with local varieties in the rest of the developing world to create high yield strains resistant to local climate and diseases.

The area sown to genetically engineered crops in developing countries is rapidly catching up with the area sown in industrial nations. According to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA), GM crops were grown by approximately 8.5 million farmers in 21 countries in 2005; up from 8.25 million farmers in 17 countries in 2004. However, the ISAAA is funded by organisations including prominent agricultural biotechnology corporations, such as Monsanto and Bayer,[citation needed] and there have been several challenges made to the accuracy of ISAAA’s global figures.[citation needed]

Opposition to GM crops[edit]

Some scientists question the safety of biotechnology as a panacea; agroecologists Miguel Altieri and Peter Rosset have enumerated ten reasons[142] why biotechnology will not ensure food security, protect the environment, or reduce poverty. Reasons include:

  • There is no relationship between the prevalence of hunger in a given country and its population
  • Most innovations in agricultural biotechnology have been profit-driven rather than need-driven
  • Ecological theory predicts that the large-scale landscape homogenization with transgenic crops will exacerbate the ecological problems already associated with monoculture agriculture
  • And, that much of the needed food can be produced by small farmers located throughout the world using existing agroecological technologies.
  • Based on evidence from previous attempts, there is a likely lack of transferability of one type of GM crop from one region to another. For example, modified crops that have proven successful in Asia from the Green Revolution have failed when tried in regions of Africa.[143] More research must be done regarding the specific requirements of growing a specific crop in a specific region.

    There is also a drastic lack of education given to governments, farmers, and the community about the science behind GM crops, as well as suitable growing practices. In most relief programs, farmers are given seeds with little explanation and little attention is paid to the resources available to them or even laws that prohibit them from distributing produce. Governments are often not advised on the economic and health implications that come with growing GM crops, and are then left to make judgments on their own. Because they have so little information regarding these crops, they usually shy away from allowing them or do not take the time and effort required to regulate their use. Members of the community that will then consume the produce from these crops are also left in the dark about what these modifications mean and are often scared off by their ‘unnatural’ origins. This has resulted in failure to properly grow crops as well as strong opposition to the unknown practices.[144]

    A study published in June 2016 evaluated the status of the implementation of Golden Rice, which was first developed in the 1990s to produce higher levels of Vitamin A than its non-GMO counterparts. This strain of rice was designed so that malnourished women and children in third world countries who were more susceptible to deficiencies could easily improve their Vitamin A intake levels and prevent blindness, which is a common result. Golden Rice production was centralized to the Philippines, yet there have been many hurdles to jump in order to get production moving. The study showed that the project is far behind schedule and is not living up to its expectations. Although research on Golden Rice still continues, the country has moved forward with other non-GMO initiatives to address the Vitamin A deficiency problem which is so prevasive in that region.[145][146]

    Many anti-GMO activists argue that the use of GM crops decreases biodiversity amongst plants. Livestock biodiversity is also threatened by the modernization of agriculture and the focus on more productive major breeds. Therefore, efforts have been made by governments and non-governmental organizations to conserve livestock biodiversity through strategies such as Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources.[147][148]

    Support of GM crops[edit]

    Many GM crop success stories exist, primarily in developed nations like the USA, China, and various countries in Europe. Common GM crops include cotton, maize, and soybeans, all of which are grown throughout North and South America as well as regions of Asia.[149] Modified cotton crops, for example, have been altered such that they are resistant to pests, can grown in more extreme heat, cold, or drought, and produce longer, stronger fibers to be used in textile production.[150]

    One of the biggest threats to rice, which is a staple food crop especially in India and other countries within Asia, is blast disease which is a fungal infection that causes lesions to form on all parts of the plant.[151] A genetically engineered strain of rice has been developed so that it is resistant to blast, greatly improving the crop yield of farmers and allowing rice to be more accessible to everyone.[152] Some other crops have been modified such that they produce higher yields per plant or that they require less land for growing. The latter can be helpful in extreme climates with little arable land and also decreases deforestation, as fewer trees need to be cut down in order to make room for crop fields.[153] Others yet have been altered such that they do not require the use of insecticides or fungicides. This addresses various health concerns associated with such pesticides and can also work to improve biodiversity within the area in which these crops are grown.[154]

    In a review of Borlaug’s 2000 publication entitled Ending world hunger: the promise of biotechnology and the threat of antiscience zealotry,[155] the authors argued that Borlaug’s warnings were still true in 2010,[156]

    GM crops are as natural and safe as today’s bread wheat, opined Dr. Borlaug, who also reminded agricultural scientists of their moral obligation to stand up to the antiscience crowd and warn policy makers that global food insecurity will not disappear without this new technology and ignoring this reality global food insecurity would make future solutions all the more difficult to achieve.

    — Rozwadowski and Kagale

    Research conducted by the GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence (GRACE) program through the EU between 2007 and 2013 focused on many uses of GM crops and evaluated many facets of their effects on human, animal, and environmental health.

    The body of scientific evidence concluding that GM foods are safe to eat and do not pose environmental risks is wide. Findings from the International Council of Scientists (2003) that analyzed a selection of approximately 50 science-based reviews concluded that “currently available genetically modified foods are safe to eat,” and “there is no evidence of any deleterious environmental effects having occurred from the trait/species combinations currently available.”[157] The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) supported the same consensus a year later in addition to recommending the extension of biotechnology to the developing world.[158] Similarly, the Royal Society (2003) and British Medical Association (2004) found no adverse health effects of consuming genetically modified foods.[159][160] These findings supported the conclusions of earlier studies by the European Union Research Directorate, a compendium of 81 scientific studies conducted by more than 400 research teams did not show “any new risks to human health or the environment, beyond the usual uncertainties of conventional plant breeding.”[161] Likewise, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in Europe (OECD) and the Nuffield Council on Bioethics (1999) did not find that genetically modified foods posed a health risk.[162][163]

    Approaches[edit]

    A liquid manure spreader is used to increase agricultural productivity.

    By the United Nations[edit]

    The UN Millennium Development Goals are one of the initiatives aimed at achieving food security in the world. The first Millennium Development Goal states that the UN “is to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty” by 2015.[164] Olivier De Schutter, the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, advocates for a multidimensional approach to food security challenges. This approach emphasizes the physical availability of food; the social, economic and physical access people have to food; and the nutrition, safety and cultural appropriateness or adequacy of food.[165]

    By the Food and Agriculture Organization[edit]

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations stated in The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2003 that countries that have reduced hunger often had rapid economic growth, specifically in their agricultural sectors. These countries were also characterized as having slower population growth, lower HIV rates, and higher rankings in the Human Development Index.[166] At that time, the FAO considered addressing agriculture and population growth vital to achieving food security. In The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012, the FAO restated its focus on economic growth and agricultural growth to achieve food security and added a focus on the poor and on “nutrition-sensitive” growth. For example, economic growth should be used by governments to provide public services to benefit poor and hungry populations. The FAO also cited smallholders, including women, as groups that should be involved in agricultural growth to generate employment for the poor. For economic and agricultural growth to be “nutrition-sensitive”, resources should be utilized to improve access to diverse diets for the poor as well as access to a safe water supply and to healthcare.[24] The FAO has proposed a “twin track” approach to fight food insecurity that combines sustainable development and short-term hunger relief. Development approaches include investing in rural markets and rural infrastructure.[6] In general, the FAO proposes the use of public policies and programs that promote long-term economic growth that will benefit the poor. To obtain short-term food security, vouchers for seeds, fertilizer, or access to services could promote agricultural production. The use of conditional or unconditional food or cash transfers was another approach the FAO noted. Conditional transfers could include school feeding programs, while unconditional transfers could include general food distribution, emergency food aid or cash transfers. A third approach is the use of subsidies as safety nets to increase the purchasing power of households. The FAO stated that “approaches should be human rights-based, target the poor, promote gender equality, enhance long-term resilience and allow sustainable graduation out of poverty.”[24]

    The FAO noted that some countries have been successful in fighting food insecurity and decreasing the number of people suffering from undernourishment. Bangladesh is an example of a country that has met the Millennium Development Goal hunger target. The FAO credited growth in agricultural productivity and macroeconomic stability for the rapid economic growth in the 1990s that resulted in an increase in food security. Irrigation systems were established through infrastructure development programs. Two programs, HarvestPlus and the Golden Rice Project, provided biofortified crops in order to decrease micronutrient deficiencess.[9]

    World Food Day was established on October 16, in honor of the date that the FAO was founded in 1945. On this day, the FAO hosts a variety of event at the headquarters in Rome and around the world, as well as seminars with UN officials.[28]

    By the World Food Programme[edit]

    Fight Hunger: Walk the World campaign is a United Nations World Food Programme initiative.

    The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations that uses food aid to promote food security and eradicate hunger and poverty. In particular, the WFP provides food aid to refugees and to others experiencing food emergencies. It also seeks to improve nutrition and quality of life to the most vulnerable populations and promote self-reliance.[167] An example of a WFP program is the “Food For Assets” program in which participants work on new infrastructure, or learn new skills, that will increase food security, in exchange for food.[168] The WFP and the Government of Kenya have partnered in the Food For Assets program in hopes of increasing the resilience of communities to shocks.[169]

    Global partnerships to achieve food security and end hunger[edit]

    In April 2012, the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world’s first legally binding international agreement on food aid. The May 2012 Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending. They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS.[170]

    The main global policy to reduce hunger and poverty are the recently approved Sustainable Development Goals. In particular Goal 2: Zero Hunger sets globally agreed targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by 2030.[171] A number of organizations have formed initiatives with the more ambitious goal to achieve this outcome in only 10 years, by 2025:

    • In 2013 Caritas International started a Caritas-wide initiative aimed at ending systemic hunger by 2025. The One human family, food for all campaign focuses on awareness raising, improving the effect of Caritas programs and advocating the implementation of the Right to Food.[172]
    • The partnership Compact2025,[173] led by IFPRI with the involvement of UN organisations, NGOs and private foundations[174] develops and disseminates evidence-based advice to politicians and other decision-makers aimed at ending hunger and undernutrition in the coming 10 years, by 2025.[175] It bases its claim that hunger can be ended by 2025 on a report by Shenggen Fan and Paul Polman that analyzed the experiences from China, Vietnam, Brazil and Thailand and concludes that eliminating hunger and undernutrition was possible by 2025.[176]
    • In June 2015, the European Union and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have launched a partnership to combat undernutrition especially in children. The program will initiatilly be implemented in Bangladesh, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Laos and Niger and will help these countries to improve information and analysis about nutrition so they can develop effective national nutrition policies.[177]
    • The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN has created a partnership that will act through the African Union’s CAADP framework aiming to end hunger in Africa by 2025. It includes different interventions including support for improved food production, a strengthening of social protection and integration of the Right to Food into national legislation.[178]

    By the United States Agency for International Development[edit]

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) proposes several key steps to increasing agricultural productivity which is in turn key to increasing rural income and reducing food insecurity.[179] They include:

    • Boosting agricultural science and technology. Current agricultural yields are insufficient to feed the growing populations. Eventually, the rising agricultural productivity drives economic growth.
    • Securing property rights and access to finance
    • Enhancing human capital through education and improved health
    • Conflict prevention and resolution mechanisms and democracy and governance based on principles of accountability and transparency in public institutions and the rule of law are basic to reducing vulnerable members of society.

    Since the 1960s, the U.S. has been implementing a food stamp program (now called the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) to directly target consumers who lack the income to purchase food. According to Tim Josling, a Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University, food stamps or other methods of distribution of purchasing power directly to consumers might fit into the range of international programs under consideration to tackle food insecurity.[180]

    Improving agricultural productivity to benefit the rural poor[edit]

    A farmer on the outskirts of Lilongwe (Malawi) prepares a field for planting.

    There are strong, direct relationships between agricultural productivity, hunger, poverty, and sustainability. Three-quarters of the world’s poor live in rural areas and make their living from agriculture. Hunger and child malnutrition are greater in these areas than in urban areas. Moreover, the higher the proportion of the rural population that obtains its income solely from subsistence farming (without the benefit of pro-poor technologies and access to markets), the higher the incidence of malnutrition. Therefore, improvements in agricultural productivity aimed at small-scale farmers will benefit the rural poor first. Food and feed crop demand is likely to double in the next 50 years, as the global population approaches nine billion. Growing sufficient food will require people to make changes such as increasing productivity in areas dependent on rainfed agriculture; improving soil fertility management; expanding cropped areas; investing in irrigation; conducting agricultural trade between countries; and reducing gross food demand by influencing diets and reducing post-harvest losses.

    According to the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, a major study led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), managing rainwater and soil moisture more effectively, and using supplemental and small-scale irrigation, hold the key to helping the greatest number of poor people. It has called for a new era of water investments and policies for upgrading rainfed agriculture that would go beyond controlling field-level soil and water to bring new freshwater sources through better local management of rainfall and runoff.[181] Increased agricultural productivity enables farmers to grow more food, which translates into better diets and, under market conditions that offer a level playing field, into higher farm incomes. With more money, farmers are more likely to diversify production and grow higher-value crops, benefiting not only themselves but the economy as a whole.”[164]

    Researchers suggest forming an alliance between the emergency food program and community-supported agriculture, as some countries’ food stamps cannot be used at farmer’s markets and places where food is less processed and grown locally.[182] The gathering of wild food plants appears to be an efficient alternative method of subsistence in tropical countries, which may play a role in poverty alleviation.[183]

    Large-scale food stockpiling[edit]

    The minimum annual global wheat storage is approximately two months.[184] To counteract the severe food security issues caused by global catastrophic risks, years of food storage has been proposed.[185] Though this could ameliorate smaller scale problems like regional conflict and drought, it would exacerbate current food insecurity by raising food prices.

    Agricultural insurances[edit]

    Insurance is a financial instrument, which allows exposed individuals to pool resources to spread their risk. They do so by contributing premium to an insurance fund, which will indemnify those who suffer insured loss. This procedure reduces the risk for an individual by spreading his/her risk among the multiple fund contributors. Insurance can be designed to protect many types of individuals and assets against single or multiple perils and buffer insured parties against sudden and dramatic income or asset loss.

    Crop insurance is purchased by agricultural producers to protect themselves against either the loss of their crops due to natural disasters. Two type of insurances are available:[186] (1) claim-based insurances, and (2) index-based insurances. In particular in poor countries facing food security problems, index-based insurances offer some interesting advantages: (1) indices can be derived from globally available satellite images that correlate well with what is insured; (2) these indices can be delivered at low cost; and (3) the insurance products open up new markets that are not served by claim-based insurances.[relevant? – discuss]

    An advantage of index-based insurance is that it can potentially be delivered at lower cost. A significant barrier that hinders uptake of claim-based insurance is the high transaction cost for searching for prospective policyholders, negotiating and administering contracts, verifying losses and determining payouts. Index insurance eliminates the loss verification step, thereby mitigating a significant transaction cost. A second advantage of index-based insurance is that, because it pays an indemnity based on the reading of an index rather than individual losses, it eliminates much of the fraud, moral hazard and adverse selection, which are common in classical claim-based insurance. A further advantage of index insurance is that payments based on a standardized and indisputable index also allow for a fast indemnity payment. The indemnity payment could be automated, further reducing transaction costs.[relevant? – discuss]

    Basis risk is a major disadvantage of index-based insurance. It is the situation where an individual experiences a loss without receiving payment or vice versa. Basis risk is a direct result of the strength of the relation between the index that estimates the average loss by the insured group and the loss of insured assets by an individual. The weaker this relation the higher the basis risk. It is obvious that high basis risk undermines the willingness of potential clients to purchase insurance. It thus challenges insurance companies to design insurances such as to minimize basis risk.[relevant? – discuss]

    Food Justice Movement[edit]

    Main article: Food Justice Movement

    The Food Justice Movement has been seen as a unique and multifaceted movement with relevance to the issue of food security. It has been described as a movement about social-economic and political problems in connection to environmental justice, improved nutrition and health, and activism. Today, a growing number of individuals and minority groups are embracing the Food Justice due to the perceived increase in hunger within nations such as the United States as well as the amplified effect of food insecurity on many minority communities, particularly the Black and Latino communities.[187] A number of organizations have either championed the Food Justice Cause or greatly impacted the Food Justice space. An example of a prominent organization within the food justice movement has been the Coalition of Immokalee Workers, which is a worker-based human rights organization that has been recognized globally for its accomplishments in the areas of human trafficking, social responsibility and gender-based violence at work. The Coalition of Immoaklee Workers most prominent accomplishment related to the food justice space has been its part in implementing the Fair Food Program which increased the pay and bettered working conditions of farm workers in the tomato industry who had been exploited for generations. This accomplishment provided over 30,000 workers more income and the ability to access better and more healthy foods for themselves and their families. Another organization in the food justice space is the Fair Food Network, an organization that has embraced the mission of helping familIes who need healthy food to gain access to it while also increasing the livelihoold for farmers in America and growing local economies. Started by Oran B. Hesterma, the Fair Food Network has invested over $200 million in various projects and initiatives, such as the Double Up Food Bucks program, to help low-income and minority communities access healthier food.[188]

    Bees[edit]

    Bees and other pollinating insects are currently improving the food production of 2 billion small farmers worldwide, helping to ensure food security for the world’s population. Research shows that if pollination is managed well on small diverse farms, with all other factors being equal, crop yields can increase by a significant median of 24 percent.[189]

    How animal pollinators positively affect fruit condition and nutrient content is still being discovered.[190]

    Criticism[edit]

    As of 2015[update] the concept of food security has mostly focused on food calories rather than the quality and nutrition of food. The concept of nutrition security evolved over time. In 1995, it has been defined as “adequate nutritional status in terms of protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals for all household members at all times”.[191]:16

    See also[edit]

    • Sustainable development portal
    • Hunger relief portal
    • Food portal
    • Globalization portal
    • Agricultural economics
    • Agroecology
    • Allotment gardens
    • Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources
    • Food price crisis
    • Food rescue
    • Food sovereignty
    • Food Security Bill, 2013 legislation in India
    • Food Security in Burkina Faso
    • Food vs fuel
    • Garden sharing
    • Geography of food
    • Human security
    • Indian Famine Codes
    • Integrated Food Security Phase Classification
    • International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development
    • List of famines
    • List of food labeling regulations
    • Malawian food crisis
    • Malthusian catastrophe
    • Nutritional economics
    • Peak wheat
    • Right to food
    • School feeding in low-income countries
    • Subsistence crisis
    • Survivalism
    • Sustainable agriculture
    • Sustainable Development Goals
    • Theories of famines
    • World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (monthly report)

    Organizations:

    • 2020 Vision Initiative
    • Afrique verte
    • Community Food Security Coalition
    • Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
    • Famine Early Warning Systems Network
    • Food First
    • Global Crop Diversity Trust
    • Local Food Plus

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  • ^ Cook, John. “Child Food Insecurity: The Economic Impact on our Nation” (PDF). 
  • ^ Christian, Thomas (2010). “Grocery Store Access and the Food Insecurity–Obesity Paradox”. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition. 5 (3): 360–369. doi:10.1080/19320248.2010.504106.  |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  • ^ [1], World Food Programme Gender Policy Report. Rome, 2009.
  • ^ Spieldoch, Alexandra (2011). “The Right to Food, Gender Equality and Economic Policy”. Center for Women’s Global Leadership (CWGL). 
  • ^ “Gender equality is more sustainable – Population Matters”. Population Matters. 2015-01-27. Retrieved 2018-01-30. 
  • ^ FAO, ADB (2013). Gender Equality and Food Security – Women’s Empowerment as a Tool against Hunger (PDF). Mandaluyong City, Philippines: ADB. ISBN 978-92-9254-172-9. 
  • ^ Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook, World Food Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development (2009)
  • ^ FAO (2011). The state of food and agriculture women in agriculture : closing the gender gap for development (PDF) (2010–11 ed.). Rome: FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-106768-0. 
  • ^ FAO (2006). “Food Security” (PDF). Policy Brief. 
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  • ^ Fischer, Klara (2016-07-01). “Why new crop technology is not scale-neutral—A critique of the expectations for a crop-based African Green Revolution”. Research Policy. 45 (6): 1185–1194. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2016.03.007. 
  • ^ Wedding, K. (2013). Pathways to productivity: The role of GMOs for food security in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Rowman and Littlefield. 
  • ^ Stone, Glenn Davis; Glover, Dominic (2016-04-16). “Disembedding grain: Golden Rice, the Green Revolution, and heirloom seeds in the Philippines”. Agriculture and Human Values. 34: 1–16. doi:10.1007/s10460-016-9696-1. ISSN 0889-048X. 
  • ^ “Genetically modified Golden Rice falls short on lifesaving promises | The Source | Washington University in St. Louis”. 2016-06-02. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  • ^ ’’Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration.’’ Rep. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2007. FAO. Web.
  • ^ ’’Cryoconservation of Animal Genetic Resources.’ ‘Rep. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2012. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12. Print.
  • ^ www.gmo-compass.org. “GMO Crop Growing: Growing Around the World”. www.gmo-compass.org. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  • ^ www.gmo-compass.org. “Cotton – GMO Database”. www.gmo-compass.org. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  • ^ TeBeest, D. (2007). “Rice Blast”. The Plant Health Instructor. doi:10.1094/phi-i-2007-0313-07. 
  • ^ Shew, Aaron M.; Nalley, Lawton L.; Danforth, Diana M.; Dixon, Bruce L.; Nayga, Rodolfo M.; Delwaide, Anne-Cecile; Valent, Barbara (2016-01-01). “Are all GMOs the same? Consumer acceptance of cisgenic rice in India”. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 14 (1): 4–7. doi:10.1111/pbi.12442. ISSN 1467-7652. PMID 26242818. 
  • ^ Makinde, D. (2009). “Status of Biotechnology in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities”. Asian Biotechnology and Development Review. 11 (3). 
  • ^ Gerasimova, Ksenia (2015-06-11). “Debates on Genetically Modified Crops in the Context of Sustainable Development”. Science and Engineering Ethics. 22 (2): 525–547. doi:10.1007/s11948-015-9656-y. ISSN 1353-3452. 
  • ^ Borlaug, N.E. (2000), “Ending world hunger: the promise of biotechnology and the threat of antiscience zealotry”, Plant Physiology, 124 (2): 487–490, doi:10.1104/pp.124.2.487, PMC 1539278 , PMID 11027697 
  • ^ Rozwadowski, Kevin; Kagale, Sateesh (nd), Global Food Security: The Role of Agricultural Biotechnology Commentary (PDF), Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, retrieved 12 January 2014 
  • ^ International Council for Science, “New Genetics, Food and Agriculture: Scientific Discoveries – Societal Dilemmas,” 2003.
  • ^ Entine, J. (ed), “Let them Eat Precaution: How politics is undermining the genetic revolution in agriculture,” The AEI Press: Washington, DC, 2005.
  • ^ Royal Society, “Royal Society Submission to the Government’s GM Science Review,” Royal Society, Policy Document: 14/03, May 2003
  • ^ British Medical Association, Board of Science and Education, “Genetically modified foods and health: a second interim statement,” British Medical Association, May 2004.
  • ^ European Union (EU) Research Directorate, ‘‘GMOs: Are there any Risks?’’. EU Commission press briefing, 9 October 2001. Accessed at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/index.html
  • ^ Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) “GM Food Safety: Facts, Uncertainties, and Assessment, Rapporteurs’ Summary.” The OECD Edinburgh Conference on the Scientific and Health Aspects of Genetically Modified Foods, 28 February – 1 March, 2000.
  • ^ Millstone, E., and J. Abraham. 1988. Additives: A guide for everyone. London: Penguin. Nuffield Council on Bioethics “Genetically modified crops: the ethical and social issues,” 1999.
  • ^ a b Joachim von Braun; M.S. Swaminathan; Mark W. Rosegrant (2003). Agriculture, Food Security, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals: Annual Report Essay. IFPRI. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  • ^ De Schutter, Olivier (December 2010). “Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food” (PDF). United Nations. pp. 1–21. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  • ^ FAO (2003). “The State of Food Security in the World 2003” (PDF). FAO. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
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  • ^ WFP and Republic of Kenya. “Cash/Food For Assets”. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
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  • ^ “Leadership Council”. www.compact2025.org. 
  • ^ Compact2025: Ending hunger and undernutrition. 2015. Project Paper. IFPRI: Washington, DC.
  • ^ Fan, Shenggen and Polman, Paul. 2014. An ambitious development goal: Ending hunger and undernutrition by 2025. In 2013 Global food policy report. Eds. Marble, Andrew and Fritschel, Heidi. Chapter 2. Pp 15–28. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • ^ European Commission Press release. June 2015. EU launches new partnership to combat Undernutrition with Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Accessed on November 1, 2015
  • ^ FAO. 2015. Africa’s Renewed Partnership to End Hunger by 2025. Accessed on 1 November 2015.
  • ^ USAID – Food Security Archived October 26, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
  • ^ Global Food Stamps: An Idea Worth Considering, August 2011, ICTSD, Issue Paper No.36.
  • ^ Molden, D. (Ed). Water for food, Water for life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. Earthscan/IWMI, 2007.
  • ^ McCullum, Christine; Desjardins, Ellen; Kraak, Vivica I.; Ladipo, Patricia; Costello, Helen (1 February 2005). “Evidence-based strategies to build community food security”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105 (2): 278–283. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2004.12.015. 
  • ^ Claudio O. Delang (2006). “The role of wild food plants in poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in tropical countries”. Progress in Development Studies. 6 (4): 275–286. doi:10.1191/1464993406ps143oa. 
  • ^ Thien Do, Kim Anderson, B. Wade Brorsen. “The World’s wheat supply.” Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service
  • ^ Maher, TM Jr; Baum, SD (2013). “Adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe”. Sustainability. 5 (4): 1461–1479. doi:10.3390/su5041461. 
  • ^ de Leeuw, Jan; Vrieling, Anton; Shee, Apurba; Atzberger, Clement; Hadgu, Kiros M.; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Keah, Humphrey; Turvey, Calum (2014). “The Potential and Uptake of Remote Sensing in Insurance: A Review”. Remote Sens. 6 (11): 10888–10912. Bibcode:2014RemS….610888D. doi:10.3390/rs61110888. 
  • ^ Hilmers, Angela; Hilmers, David C.; Dave, Jayna (2017-04-24). “Neighborhood Disparities in Access to Healthy Foods and Their Effects on Environmental Justice”. American Journal of Public Health. 102 (9): 1644–1654. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300865. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 3482049 . PMID 22813465. 
  • ^ “Who We Are”. Fair Food Network. Retrieved 2017-04-20. 
  • ^ “Food Security, Quality through Bees”. ABC Live. ABC Live. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  • ^ Wendee Nicole Pollinator Power: Nutrition Security Benefits of an Ecosystem Service Environ Health Perspect. doi:10.1289/ehp.123-A210, quote “We have spent far too long looking solely at calories as the answer to food security, and not nutrition security.”
  • ^ QAgnes R. Quisumbing, Lynn R. Brown, Hilary Sims Feldstein, Lawrence James Haddad, Christine Peña Women: The key to food security. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Food Policy Report. 26 pages. Washington. 1995
  • Sources[edit]

    • Cox, P. G., S. Mak, G. C. Jahn, and S. Mot. 2001. Impact of technologies on food security and poverty alleviation in Cambodia: designing research processes. pp. 677–684 In S. Peng and B. Hardy [eds.] “Rice Research for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation.” Proceeding the International Rice Research Conference, March 31, – April 3, 2000, Los Baños, Phile.
    • Singer, H. W. (1997). A global view of food security. Agriculture + Rural Development, 4: 3–6. Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CTA).

    Further reading[edit]

    • Dixant, Agriculture, and Food Security in Southern Africa edited by Steven Were Omamo and Klaus von Grebmer (2005) (Brief and Book available)
    • Brown ME, Funk CC (February 2008). “Climate. Food security under climate change”. Science. 319 (5863): 580–1. doi:10.1126/science.1154102. PMID 18239116. 
    • Lobell DB, Burke MB, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea MD, Falcon WP, Naylor RL (February 2008). “Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030”. Science. 319 (5863): 607–10. doi:10.1126/science.1152339. PMID 18239122. 
    • Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Food Security EC-FAO Food Security Programme (2008) Practical Guide Series
    • Lindberg R, Whelan J, Lawrence M, Gold L, Friel S (February 2015) “Still serving hot soup? Two hundred years of a charitable food sector in Australia: a narrative review”. Australia New Zealand Journal of Public Health. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1753-6405.12311/abstract
    • The environmental food crisis A study done by the UN on feeding the world population (2009)
    • Climate change: Impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation A report by the International Food Policy Research Institute that presents research results that quantify the impacts of climate change, assesses the consequences for food security, and estimates the investments that would offset the negative consequences for human well-being.
    • Moseley, W.G. and B.I. Logan. 2005. “Food Security.” In: Wisner, B., C. Toulmin and R. Chitiga (eds). Toward a New Map of Africa. London: Earthscan Publications. Pp. 133–152.
    • “FOOD SECURITY Communications Toolkit”. fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved September 7, 2016. 
    • Nord, Mark. “Struggling To Feed the Family: What Does It Mean To Be Food Insecure?”. Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. 
    • Food Insecurity, a special issue on the topic by the Journal of Applied Research on Children. (2012)
    • Achieving Food and Nutrition Security: Actions to Meet the Global Challenge. A Training Course Reader by InWEnt, GTZ and Welthungerhilfe. 3rd edition, 240 pages, 2009
    • Research from the Global Sustainability Institute that studies the link between political fragility and access to food

    External links[edit]

    • FAO Food Security Statistics
    • U.S.Government Feed the Future program
    • The Global Food Security and Nutrition Forum (FSN Forum)
    • Can China Feed Itself? A System for Evaluation of Policy Options.
    • Food Security Communications Toolkit from FAO

    Psychological

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    Complex measures

    • Human Poverty Index (HPI)
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    • Laeken indicators (EU)
    • Scottish index of multiple deprivation
    • Townsend deprivation index
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    • Progress out of Poverty Index

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    • Theories of poverty
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    Spy (disambiguation).

    Contents

    • 1 Books and magazines
    • 2 Film
    • 3 Television
    • 4 Music
      • 4.1 Albums
      • 4.2 Songs
    • 5 People
      • 5.1 Real people
      • 5.2 Fictional characters
    • 6 Other uses
    • 7 See also

    A spy is a person engaged in espionage, obtaining information that is considered secret or confidential.

    Spy or The Spy may also refer to:

    Books and magazines[edit]

    • The Spy (Cooper novel), an 1821 novel by James Fenimore Cooper
    • The Spy, a 1920 novel by Upton Sinclair
    • The Spy (Cussler novel), a 2010 novel by Clive Cussler and Justin Scott
    • The Spy, a 2016 novel by Paulo Coelho
    • Spy, a novel in the Alex Hawke series by Ted Bell
    • Spy (magazine), a satirical monthly

    Film[edit]

    • An English translation of the title for Spione, the 1928 silent film by Fritz Lang
    • The Spy (1917 film), a 1917 film released shortly after the United States entered World War I
    • The Spy (1931 film), a 1931 film directed by Berthold Viertel
    • The Spy (1964 film), a 1964 Egyptian film directed by Niazi Mustafa
    • The Spy (1999 film), a 1999 South Korean film directed by Jang Jin
    • The Spy (2012 South Korean film), a 2012 South Korean film directed by Woo Min-ho
    • Spy (2012 Russian film), a Russian thriller film
    • The Spy: Undercover Operation, a 2013 South Korean film directed by Lee Seung-joon
    • Spy (2015 film), a comedy starring Melissa McCarthy

    Television[edit]

    • Spy (2004 TV series), a British reality series that premiered on BBC3 in 2004
    • Spy (2011 TV series), a British comedy series that premiered on Sky1 and Hulu in 2011
    • Spy (2015 TV series), a South Korean action series, also stylised as SPY

    Music[edit]

    • Spy (band), an Atlanta-based rock band
    • S.P.Y (born 1976), a London-based Drum and Bass producer/DJ

    Albums[edit]

    • Spy (Spy album), 2005
    • Spy (Carly Simon album), 1979

    Songs[edit]

    • “The Spy”, a song on Morrison Hotel, a 1970 album by the Doors
    • “Spy”, a song by They Might Be Giants from the album John Henry
    • “Spy”, the titular song on Carly Simon 1979 album Spy
    • “Spy” (Super Junior song), a 2012 song by South Korean boy band Super Junior
    • “iSpy” (Kyle song), a 2016 song by Kyle featuring Lil Yachty

    People[edit]

    Real people[edit]

    • Spy (1851–1922), a British cartoonist a.k.a. Leslie Ward
    • Spy (born 1974/75), an American musician a.k.a. J. Ralph

    Fictional characters[edit]

    • Spy (Team Fortress 2), one of the nine playable classes in the video game

    Other uses[edit]

    • Spy, Belgium, a village
    • Northern Spy apple

    See also[edit]

    • All pages beginning with “spy”
    • All pages with a title containing spy
    • SPY (disambiguation)
    • Spies (disambiguation)
    • Spy vs. Spy, a comic strip
    • Spy fiction
    • Grotte de Spy, a cave near the village of Spy in Belgium
    • The Secret Agent (disambiguation)


    National safety

    This article is about security. For the American film, see National Security (2003 film). For the South Korean film, see National Security (2012 film).
    “National defense” redirects here. For other uses, see National defense (disambiguation).

    Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, UK. These heavy blocks of concrete are designed to prevent a car bomb or other device being rammed into the building.

    President Reagan in a briefing with National Security Council staff on the Libya Bombing on 15 April 1986

    National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

    Originally conceived as protection against military attack, national security is now widely understood to include non-military dimensions, including economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, cyber security etc. Similarly, national security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states, action by violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, and multinational corporations, and also the effects of natural disasters.

    Governments rely on a range of measures, including political, economic, and military power, as well as diplomacy to enforce national security. They may also act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change, economic inequality, political exclusion, and Nuclear proliferation.

    Contents

    • 1 Definitions
    • 2 Dimensions of national security
      • 2.1 Physical security
      • 2.2 Political security
      • 2.3 Economic security
      • 2.4 Ecological security
      • 2.5 Security of energy and natural resources
      • 2.6 Computer security
    • 3 Issues in national security
      • 3.1 Consistency of approach
      • 3.2 National versus transnational security
      • 3.3 Impact on civil liberties and human rights
    • 4 Country-by-country perspectives
      • 4.1 Brazil
      • 4.2 China
      • 4.3 Russia
      • 4.4 Europe
        • 4.4.1 United Kingdom
      • 4.5 United States
        • 4.5.1 National Security Act of 1947
        • 4.5.2 Obama administration
        • 4.5.3 Empowerment of women
        • 4.5.4 Cyber
        • 4.5.5 National security state
      • 4.6 Africa
    • 5 See also
    • 6 References
    • 7 Further reading
    • 8 External links

    Definitions[edit]

    The concept of national security remains ambiguous, having evolved from simpler definitions which emphasised freedom from military threat and from political coercion.[1]:1–6[2]:52–54 Among the many definitions proposed to date are the following, which show how the concept has evolved to encompass non-military concerns:

    • “A nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate ínterests to avoid war, and is able, if challenged, to maintain them by war.” (Walter Lippmann, 1943).[1]:5
    • “The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation.” (Harold Lasswell, 1950)[1]:79
    • “National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked.” (Arnold Wolfers, 1960)[3]
    • “National security then is the ability to preserve the nation’s physical integrity and territory; to maintain its economic relations with the rest of the world on reasonable terms; to preserve its nature, institution, and governance from disruption from outside; and to control its borders.” (Harold Brown, U.S. Secretary of Defense, 1977-1981)[4]
    • “National security… is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity and wellbeing.” (Charles Maier, 1990)[5]
    • “National security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience and maturity, human resources, economic structure and capacity, technological competence, industrial base and availability of natural resources and finally the military might.” (National Defence College of India, 1996)[6]
    • “[National security is the] measurable state of the capability of a nation to overcome the multi-dimensional threats to the apparent well-being of its people and its survival as a nation-state at any given time, by balancing all instruments of state policy through governance… and is extendable to global security by variables external to it.” (Prabhakaran Paleri, 2008)[2]:52–54
    • “[National and international security] may be understood as a shared freedom from fear and want, and the freedom to live in dignity. It implies social and ecological health rather than the absence of risk… [and is] a common right.” (Ammerdown Group, 2016)[7]:3

    Dimensions of national security[edit]

    Potential causes of national insecurity include actions by other states (e.g. military or cyber attack), violent non-state actors (e.g. terrorist attack), organised criminal groups such as narcotic cartels, and also the effects of natural disasters (e.g. flooding, earthquakes).[1]:v, 1–8[7][8] Systemic drivers of insecurity, which may be transnational, include climate change, economic inequality and marginalisation, political exclusion, and militarisation.[7][8]

    In view of the wide range of risks, the security of a nation state has several dimensions, including economic security, energy security, physical security, environmental security, food security, border security, and cyber security. These dimensions correlate closely with elements of national power.

    Increasingly, governments organise their security policies into a national security strategy (NSS); as of 2017, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States are among the states to have done so.[9][10][11][12] Some states also appoint a National Security Council to oversee the strategy and/or a National Security Advisor.

    Although states differ in their approach, with some beginning to prioritise non-military action to tackle systemic drivers of insecurity, various forms of coercive power predominate, particularly military capabilities.[7] The scope of these capabilities has developed. Traditionally, military capabilities were mainly land- or sea-based, and in smaller countries they still are. Elsewhere, the domains of potential warfare now include the air, space, cyberspace, and psychological operations.[13] Military capabilities designed for these domains may be used for national security, or equally for offensive purposes, for example to conquer and annex territory and resources.

    See also: Elements of national security and Elements of national power

    Physical security[edit]

    Main article: Military security

    In practice, national security is associated primarily with managing physical threats and with the military capabilities used for doing so.[9][11][12] That is, national security is often understood as the capacity of a nation to mobilise military forces to guarantee its borders and to deter or successfully defend against physical threats including military aggression and attacks by non-state actors, such as terrorism. Most states, such as South Africa and Sweden,[14][10] configure their military forces mainly for territorial defence; others, such as France, Russia, the UK and the US,[15][16][11][12] invest in higher-cost expeditionary capabilities, which allow their armed forces to project power and sustain military operations abroad.

    See also: Terrorism, Border guard, and Military aggression

    Political security[edit]

    Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver, Jaap de Wilde and others have argued that national security depends on political security: the stability of the social order.[17] Others, such as Paul Rogers, have added that the equitability of the international order is equally vital.[8] Hence, political security depends on the rule of international law (including the laws of war), the effectiveness of international political institutions, as well as diplomacy and negotiation between nations and other security actors.[17] It also depends on, among other factors, effective political inclusion of disaffected groups and the human security of the citizenry.[8][7][18]

    Economic security[edit]

    Main article: Economic security

    Economic security, in the context of international relations, is the ability of a nation state to maintain and develop the national economy, without which other dimensions of national security cannot be managed. In larger countries, strategies for economic security expect to access resources and markets in other countries, and to protect their own markets at home. Developing countries may be less secure than economically advanced states due to high rates of unemployment and underpaid work.[citation needed]

    Ecological security[edit]

    Main article: Environmental security

    Ecological security, also known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphere, particularly in relation to their capacity to sustain a diversity of life-forms (including human life). The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown.[19] The degradation of ecosystems, including topsoil erosion, deforestation, biodiversity loss, and climate change, affect economic security and can precipitate mass migration, leading to increased pressure on resources elsewhere.

    The scope and nature of environmental threats to national security and strategies to engage them are a subject of debate.[1]:29–33 Romm (1993) classifies the major impacts of ecological changes on national security as:[1]:15

    • Transnational environmental problems. These include global environmental problems such as climate change due to global warming, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity.[1]:15
    • Local environmental or resource pressures. These include resource scarcities leading to local conflict, such as disputes over water scarcity in the Middle East; migration into the United States caused by the failure of agriculture in Mexico;[1]:15 and the impact on the conflict in Syria of erosion of productive land.[20] Environmental insecurity in Rwanda following a rise in population and dwindling availability of farmland, may also have contributed to the genocide there.[21]
    • Environmentally threatening outcomes of warfare. These include acts of war that degrade or destroy ecosystems. Examples are the Roman destruction of agriculture in Carthage; Saddam Hussein’s burning of oil wells in the Gulf War;[1]:15–16 the use of Agent Orange by the UK in the Malayan Emergency and the USA in the Vietnam War for defoliating forests; and the high greenhouse gas emissions of military forces.[22]

    See also: Climate change and national security

    Climate change is affecting global agriculture and food security

    Refugees fleeing war and insecurity in Iraq and Syria arrive at Lesbos Island, supported by Spanish volunteers, 2015

    Security of energy and natural resources[edit]

    Resources include water, sources of energy, land and minerals. Availability of adequate natural resources is important for a nation to develop its industry and economic power. For example, in the Persian Gulf War of 1991, Iraq captured Kuwait partly in order to secure access to its oil wells, and one reason for the US counter-invasion was the value of the same wells to its own economy.[citation needed] Water resources are subject to disputes between many nations, including India and Pakistan, and in the Middle East.

    The interrelations between security, energy, natural resources, and their sustainability is increasingly acknowledged in national security strategies and resource security is now included among the UN Sustainable Development Goals.[10][9][23][12][24] In the US, for example, the military has installed solar photovoltaic microgrids on their bases in case of power outage.[25][26]

    Computer security[edit]

    Main article: Computer security

    Computer security, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, refers to the security of computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, and the Internet. It concerns the protection of hardware, software, data, people, and also the procedures by which systems are accessed, and the field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies.[27] Since unauthorized access to critical civil and military infrastructure is now considered a major threat, cyberspace is now recognised as a domain of warfare.[13]

    Issues in national security[edit]

    Consistency of approach[edit]

    The dimensions of national security outlined above are frequently in tension with one another. For example:

    • The high cost of maintaining large military forces places a burden on the economic security of a nation. The share of government expenditure on state armed forces varies internationally; for example, in 2015 it was 4% in Germany, 9% in Chile, 14% in the USA, 15% in Israel, and 19% in Pakistan.[28] Conversely, economic constraints can limit the scale of expenditure on military capabilities.
    • Unilateral security action by states can undermine political security at an international level if it erodes the rule of law and undermines the authority of international institutions. The invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the annexation of Crimea in 2014 have been cited as examples.[29][30]
    • The pursuit of economic security in competition with other nation states can undermine the ecological security of all when the impact includes widespread topsoil erosion, biodiversity loss, and climate change.[31] Conversely, expenditure on mitigating or adapting to ecological change places a burden on the national economy.

    If tensions such as these are not managed effectively, national security policies and actions may be ineffective or counterproductive.

    National versus transnational security[edit]

    Increasingly, national security strategies have begun to recognise that nations cannot provide for their own security without also developing the security of their regional and international context.[12][23][9][10] For example, Sweden’s national security strategy of 2017 declared:

    “Wider security measures must also now encompass protection against epidemics and infectious diseases, combating terrorism and organised crime, ensuring safe transport and reliable food supplies, protecting against energy supply interruptions, countering devastating climate change, initiatives for peace and global development, and much more.”[10]

    A US fighter jet over a burning oil well in Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War, 1991

    The extent to which this matters, and how it should be done, is the subject of debate. Some argue that the principal beneficiary of national security policy should be the nation state itself, which should centre its strategy on protective and coercive capabilities in order to safeguard itself in a hostile environment (and potentially to project that power into its environment, and dominate it to the point of strategic supremacy).[32][33][34] Others argue that security depends principally on building the conditions in which equitable relationships between nations can develop, partly by reducing antagonism between actors, ensuring that fundamental needs can be met, and also that differences of interest can be negotiated effectively.[35][7][8] In the UK, for example, Malcolm Chalmers argued in 2015 that the heart of the UK’s approach should be support for the Western strategic military alliance led through NATO by the United States, as “the key anchor around which international order is maintained”.[36] The Ammerdown Group argued in 2016 that the UK should shift its primary focus to building international cooperation to tackle the systemic drivers of insecurity, including climate change, economic inequality, militarisation and the political exclusion of the world’s poorest people.[7]

    Impact on civil liberties and human rights[edit]

    Approaches to national security can have a complex impact on human rights and civil liberties. For example, the rights and liberties of citizens are affected by the use of military personnel and militarised police forces to control public behaviour; the use of surveillance including mass surveillance in cyberspace; military recruitment and conscription practices; and the effects of warfare on civilians and civil infrastructure. This has led to a dialectical struggle, particularly in liberal democracies, between government authority and the rights and freedoms of the general public.

    The National Security Agency harvests personal data across the internet.

    Even where the exercise of national security is subject to good governance and the rule of law, a risk remains that the term national security may be become a pretext for suppressing unfavorable political and social views. In the US, for example, the controversial USA Patriot Act of 2001, and the revelation by Edward Snowden in 2013 that the National Security Agency harvests the personal data of the general public, brought these issues to wide public attention. Among the questions raised are whether and how national security considerations at times of war should lead to the suppression of individual rights and freedoms, and whether such restrictions are necessary when a state is not at war.

    See also: Civil liberties, Human rights, and Mass surveillance

    Country-by-country perspectives[edit]

    Brazil[edit]

    National Security ideology as taught by the US Army School of the Americas to military personnel were vital in causing the military coup of 1964. The military dictatorship was installed on the claim by military that Leftists were an existential threat to the national interests.[37]

    China[edit]

    Main article: National security of China

    China’s Armed Forces are known as the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). The military is sizeable with 2.3 million active troops in 2005.

    The Ministry of State Security was established in 1983 to ensure “the security of the state through effective measures against enemy agents, spies, and counterrevolutionary activities designed to sabotage or overthrow China’s socialist system.”

    Muslim separatists in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region are China’s most significant domestic threat.

    Russia[edit]

    In the years 1997 and 2000, Russia adopted documents titled “National Security Concept” that described Russia’s global position, the country’s interests, listed threats to national security and described the means to counter those threats. In 2009, these documents were superseded by the “National Security Strategy to 2020”. The key body responsible for coordination of policies related to Russia’s national security is the Security Council of Russia.

    According to provision 6 of the National Security Strategy to 2020, national security is “the situation in which the individual, the society and the state enjoy protection from foreign and domestic threats to the degree that ensures constitutional rights and freedoms, decent quality of life for citizens, as well as sovereignty, territorial integrity and stable development of the Russian Federation, the defense and security of the state.”

    Europe[edit]

    United Kingdom[edit]

    The primary body responsible for coordinating national security policy in the UK is the National Security Council (United Kingdom). It was created in May 2010 by the new coalition government of the Conservative Party (UK) and Liberal Democrats. The National Security Council is a committee of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and was created as part of a wider reform of the national security apparatus. This reform also included the creation of a National Security Adviser (United Kingdom) and a National Security Secretariat to support the National Security Council.[38]

    United States[edit]

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    Main article: National security of the United States
    National Security Act of 1947[edit]
    Main articles: National Security Act of 1947 and United States National Security Council

    The concept of national security became an official guiding principle of foreign policy in the United States when the National Security Act of 1947 was signed on July 26, 1947 by U.S. President Harry S. Truman.[1]:3 As amended in 1949, this Act:

    • created important components of American national security, such as the precursor to the Department of Defense);
    • subordinated the military branches to the new cabinet-level position of Secretary of Defense;
    • established the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency;[39]

    Notably, the Act did not define national security, which was conceivably advantageous, as its ambiguity made it a powerful phrase to invoke whenever issues threatened by other interests of the state, such as domestic concerns, came up for discussion and decision.[1]:3–5

    The notion that national security encompasses more than just military security was present, though understated, from the beginning. The Act established the National Security Council so as to “advise the President on the integration of domestic, military and foreign policies relating to national security”.[2]:52

    While not defining the “interests” of national security, the Act does establish, within the National Security Council, the “Committee on Foreign Intelligence”, whose duty is to conduct an annual review “identifying the intelligence required to address the national security interests of the United States as specified by the President” (emphasis added).[40]

    In Gen. Maxwell Taylor’s 1974 essay “The Legitimate Claims of National Security”, Taylor states:[41]

    The national valuables in this broad sense include current assets and national interests, as well as the sources of strength upon which our future as a nation depends. Some valuables are tangible and earthy; others are spiritual or intellectual. They range widely from political assets such as the Bill of Rights, our political institutions and international friendships, to many economic assets which radiate worldwide from a highly productive domestic economy supported by rich natural resources. It is the urgent need to protect valuables such as these which legitimizes and makes essential the role of national security.

    Obama administration[edit]

    The U.S. Armed Forces defines national security of the United States in the following manner :[42]

    A collective term encompassing both national defense and foreign relations of the United States. Specifically, the condition provided by: a. a military or defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations; b. a favorable foreign relations position; or c. a defense posture capable of successfully resisting hostile or destructive action from within or without, overt or covert.

    In 2010, the White House included an all-encompassing world-view in a national security strategy which identified “security” as one of the country’s “four enduring national interests” that were “inexorably intertwined”:[43]

    “To achieve the world we seek, the United States must apply our strategic approach in pursuit of four enduring national interests:

    • Security:  The security of the United States, its citizens, and U.S. allies and partners.
    • Prosperity:  A strong, innovative, and growing U.S. economy in an open international economic system that promotes opportunity and prosperity.
    • Values: Respect for universal values at home and around the world.
    • International Order:  An international order advanced by U.S. leadership that promotes peace, security, and opportunity through stronger cooperation to meet global challenges.

    Each of these interests is inextricably linked to the others: no single interest can be pursued in isolation, but at the same time, positive action in one area will help advance all four.”
    — National Security Strategy, Executive Office of the President of the United States (May 2010)

    Empowerment of women[edit]
    Main article: Hillary Doctrine

    U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has said that “The countries that threaten regional and global peace are the very places where women and girls are deprived of dignity and opportunity”.[44] She has noted that countries where women are oppressed are places where the “rule of law and democracy are struggling to take root”,[44] and that, when women’s rights as equals in society are upheld, the society as a whole changes and improves, which in turn enhances stability in that society, which in turn contributes to global society.[44]

    Cyber[edit]

    In the United States, the Bush Administration in January 2008, initiated the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI). It introduced a differentiated approach, such as: identifying existing and emerging cybersecurity threats, finding and plugging existing cyber vulnerabilities, and apprehending actors that trying to gain access to secure federal information systems.[45] President Obama issued a declaration that the “cyber threat is one of the most serious economic and national security challenges we face as a nation” and that “America’s economic prosperity in the 21st century will depend on cybersecurity.”[46]

    National security state[edit]

    To reflect on institutionalization of new bureaucratic infrastructures and governmental practices in the post-World War II period in the U.S., when a culture of semi-permanent military mobilization brought around the National Security Council, the CIA, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, national-security researchers apply a notion of a national security state:[47][48][49]

    During and after World War II, US leaders expanded the concept of national security and used its terminology for the first time to explain America’s relationship to the world. For most of US history, the physical security of the continental United States had not been in jeopardy. But by 1945, this invulnerability was rapidly diminishing with the advent of long-range bombers, atom bombs, and ballistic missiles. A general perception grew that the future would not allow time to mobilize, that preparation would have to become constant. For the first time, American leaders would have to deal with the essential paradox of national security faced by the Roman Empire and subsequent great powers: Si vis pacem, para bellum — If you want peace, prepare for war.[50]

    — David Jablonsky

    Africa[edit]

    Conceptualising and understanding the National Security choices and challenges of African States is a difficult task. This is due to the fact that it is often not rooted in the understanding of their (mostly disrupted) state formation and their often imported process of state building.

    Although Post-Cold War conceptualizations of Security have broadened, the policies and practices of many African states still privilege national security as being synonymous with state security and even more narrowly- regime security.

    The problem with the above is that a number of African states have been unable to govern their security in meaningful ways. Often failing to be able to claim the monopoly of force in their territories. A hybridity of security ‘governance’ or ‘providers’ thus exists.[51] States that have not been able to capture this reality in official National Security strategies and policies often find their claim over having the monopoly of force and thus being the Sovereign challenged.[51] This often leads to the weakening of the state. Examples of such states are South Sudan and Somalia.

    See also[edit]

    • Security
    • International security
    • Homeland security
    • Human security

    References[edit]

  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Romm, Joseph J. (1993). Defining national security: the nonmilitary aspects. Pew Project on America’s Task in a Changed World (Pew Project Series). Council on Foreign Relations. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-87609-135-7. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  • ^ a b c Paleri, Prabhakaran (2008). National Security: Imperatives And Challenges. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 521. ISBN 978-0-07-065686-4. Retrieved 23 September 2010. 
  • ^ Quoted in Paleri (2008) ibid. Pg 52.
  • ^ Brown, Harold (1983) Thinking about national security: defense and foreign policy in a dangerous world. As quoted in Watson, Cynthia Ann (2008). U.S. national security: a reference handbook. Contemporary world issues (2 (revised) ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-59884-041-4. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  • ^ Maier, Charles S. Peace and security for the 1990s. Unpublished paper for the MacArthur Fellowship Program, Social Science Research Council, 12 Jun 1990. As quoted in Romm 1993, p.5
  • ^ Definition from “Proceedings of Seminar on “A Maritime Strategy for India” (1996). National Defence College, Tees January Marg, New Delhi, India. quoted in Paleri 2008 (ibid).
  • ^ a b c d e f g Ammerdown Group (2016). “Rethinking Security: A discussion paper” (PDF). rethinkingsecurity.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ a b c d e Rogers, P (2010). Losing control : global security in the twenty-first century (3rd ed.). London: Pluto Press. ISBN 9780745329376. OCLC 658007519. 
  • ^ a b c d Spanish Government (2013). “The National Security Strategy: Sharing a common project” (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ a b c d e Sweden, Prime Minister’s Office (2017). “National Security Strategy” (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ a b c UK, Cabinet Office (2015). “National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015”. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ a b c d e US, White House (2015). “National Security Strategy” (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ a b “War in the fifth domain”. The Economist. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ South Africa, Department of Defence (2015). “South African Defence Review, 2015” (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ France (2017). “Strategic Review of Defence and National Security” (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ Olika, O (2016). “Unpacking Russia’s New National Security Strategy”. www.csis.org. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ a b Security: a new framework for analysis. Lynne Rienner Publishers. 1998. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-55587-784-2. 
  • ^ United Nations. “UN Trust Fund for Human Security”. www.un.org. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ United Nations General Assembly (2010). “Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2010”. www.un.org. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ Gleick, Peter H. (2014-03-03). “Water, Drought, Climate Change, and Conflict in Syria”. Weather, Climate, and Society. 6 (3): 331–340. doi:10.1175/wcas-d-13-00059.1. ISSN 1948-8327. 
  • ^ Diamond, Jared. “Malthus in Africa: Rwanda’s Genocide”. Retrieved 26 September 2010. 
  • ^ US, Department of Defense (2013). “Fiscal year 2012: Operational energy annual report” (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ a b UK, Cabinet Office (2008). “The national security strategy of the United Kingdom: security in an interdependent world”. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ Farah, Paolo Davide (2015). “Sustainable Energy Investments and National Security: Arbitration and Negotiation Issues”. Journal of World Energy Law and Business. 8 (6). 
  • ^ Prehoda, et al. 2017. U.S. Strategic Solar Photovoltaic-Powered Microgrid Deployment for Enhanced National Security. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 78, 167–175. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.094
  • ^ U.S. Army and Lockheed Martin Commission Microgrid at Fort Bliss. 2013. http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/news/press-releases/2013/may/mfc-051613-us-armyand-LM.html
  • ^ “Reliance spells end of road for ICT amateurs”, May 07, 2013, The Australian
  • ^ World Bank (2017). “Military expenditure (% of central government expenditure, 2015)”. data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ Wars in peace : British military operations since 1991. Johnson, Adrian (Historian),, Chalmers, Malcolm, 1956-, Clarke, Michael, 1950-, Codner, Michael,, Fry, Robert (Robert Alan), 1951-, Omand, David,. London, UK. ISBN 9780855161934. OCLC 880550682. 
  • ^ Section, United Nations News Service (2014-03-27). “UN News – Backing Ukraine’s territorial integrity, UN Assembly declares Crimea referendum invalid”. UN News Service Section. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ Jackson, T (2009). Prosperity without growth: economics for a finite planet. London: Earthscan. ISBN 9781849713238. OCLC 320800523. 
  • ^ US, Department of Defense (2000). “Joint Vision 2020 Emphasizes Full-spectrum Dominance”. archive.defense.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ House of Commons Defence Committee (2015). “Re-thinking defence to meet new threats”. publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ General Sir Nicholas Houghton (2015). “Building a British military fit for future challenges rather than past conflicts”. www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ FCNL (2015). “Peace Through Shared Security”. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  • ^ Chalmers, M (2015-05-05). “A Force for Order: Strategic Underpinnings of the Next NSS and SDSR”. RUSI. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  • ^ Emir Sader, “The coup in Brazil and the doctrine of National Security” (Portuguese) http://cartamaior.com.br/?/Blog/Blog-do-Emir/O-golpe-no-Brasil-e-a-doutrina-de-seguranca-nacional/2/27107
  • ^ Dr Joe Devanny & Josh Harris. “The National Security Council: national security at the centre of government”. Institute for Government & King’s College London. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  • ^ Davis, Robert T. (2010). Robert T. Davis, ed. U.S. Foreign Policy and National Security: Chronology and Index for the 20th Century. Praeger Security International Series (Illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. xiii–xiv. ISBN 978-0-313-38385-4. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  • ^ 50 U.S.C. § 402
  • ^ Taylor, Gen Maxwell (1974). “The Legitimate Claims of National Security”. Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations, Inc. 52 (Essay of 1974): 577. doi:10.2307/20038070. JSTOR 20038070. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  • ^ US NATO Military Terminology Group (2010). JP 1 (02) “Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms”, 2001 (As amended through 31 July 2010) (PDF). Pentagon, Washington: Joint Chiefs of Staff, US Department of Defense. p. 361. Retrieved 19 September 2010. 
  • ^ Obama, Barack. National Security Strategy, May 2010 Archived 2011-04-22 at the Wayback Machine.. Office of the President of the United States, White House, p. 17. Accessed 23 September 2010.
  • ^ a b c Lemmon, Gayle Tzemach (2013). “The Hillary Doctrine: Women’s Rights Are a National Security Issue”. the Atlantic. 
  • ^ Rollins, John, and Anna C. Henning. Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2009.
  • ^ “White House: Cybersecurity”. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. 
  • ^ Stuart, Douglas T. Creating the National Security State: A History of the Law That Transformed America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008. ISBN 9781400823772
  • ^ Yergin, Daniel. Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.
  • ^ Ripsman, Norrin M., and T. V. Paul. Globalization and the National Security State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • ^ David Jablonsky. The State of the National Security State. Carlisle Barracks, PA,: Strategic Studies Institute, 2002. PDF
  • ^ a b Luckham, R., & Kirk, T. (2012). Security in hybrid political contexts: An end-user approach.
  • Further reading[edit]

    • Bhadauria, Sanjeev. National Security. Allahabad: Dept. of Defence and Strategic Studies, University of Allahabad, 2002.
    • Brzezinski, Zbigniew. Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 1977–1981. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983.
    • Chen, Hsinchun. National Security. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007.
    • Cordesman, Anthony H. Saudi Arabia National Security in a Troubled Region. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International, 2009.
    • Devanny, Joe, and Josh Harris, The National Security Council: national security at the centre of government. London: Institute for Government/King’s College London, 2014.
    • Farah, Paolo Davide; Rossi, Piercarlo (2015). “Energy: Policy, Legal and Social-Economic Issues Under the Dimensions of Sustainability and Security”. World Scientific Reference on Globalisation in Eurasia and the Pacific Rim. SSRN 2695701 . 
    • Jordan, Amos A., William J. Taylor, Michael J. Mazarr, and Suzanne C. Nielsen. American National Security. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
    • MccGwire, Michael. Perestroika and Soviet National Security. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0815755531
    • Mueller, Karl P. Striking First: Preemptive and Preventive Attack in U.S. National Security Policy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Project Air Force, 2006.
    • National Research Council (U.S.). Beyond “Fortress America”: National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2009.
    • Neal, Andrew. Security in a Small Nation: Scotland, Democracy, Politics. Open Book Publishers, 2017. ISBN 9781783742707
    • Rothkopf, David J. Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power. New York: PublicAffairs, 2005.
    • Ripsman, Norrin M., and T. V. Paul. Globalization and the National Security State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
    • Tal, Israel. National Security: The Israeli Experience. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2000.
    • Tan, Andrew. Malaysia’s security perspectives. Canberra : Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, 2002
    • Scherer, Lauri S. National Security. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010.

    External links[edit]

    • National Security collection at Internet Archive

    Media related to National security at Wikimedia Commons


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