F.B.I. Practices for Intercepted Emails Violated 4th Amendment, Judge Ruled

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Newly declassified files reveal a secret court fight over the F.B.I.’s procedures for searching for Americans’ messages within a warrantless surveillance program’s repository.

Judge James Robertson, Who Quit FISA Court Over Wiretapping, Dies at 81

He took a stand to protest warrantless domestic eavesdropping under George W. Bush. On the federal bench, he ruled against trying a Guantánamo detainee in a military court.

KUK-15

https://vimeo.com/290742912!.?.!Mindless robotics that only understand exactly how to go forward, functioning as a group to steer around challenges and attain the objective of monitoring as a collective behaviour system.”KUK15 “represents the ideas of social insects
, for instance-ants, bees, termites as well as wasps- which can be seen as effective cumulative knowledge, containing communication agents amongst people as well as the environment.

Lost in Process

https://vimeo.com/340001695!.?.!Lost in Process Shed in Process is an audio-visual experiment
which is meant for huge screen estimate. The movie checks out noise’s ability to stimulate, move and also steer ambiences in combination with aesthetic material. The noise was developed using a range of atmospheres as well as elements; featuring self captured area recordings, foley as well as controlled important structures. The visual material was created via the recording and also plan of still
and also moving image material which was caught making use of a selection of visual technologies; DV Tape, 35mm and also 16mm movie. Motifs of monitoring, time as well as damage are presented as the speculative movie unfolds.

Spy fiction

Genre involving espionage as an important context or plot device
For the Len Deighton novel, see Spy Story (novel). For the video game, see Spy Fiction. For the subgenre that includes elements of science fiction, see Spy-Fi (subgenre).

Spy fiction, a genre of literature involving espionage as an important context or plot device, emerged in the early twentieth century, inspired by rivalries and intrigues between the major powers, and the establishment of modern intelligence agencies. It was given new impetus by the development of fascism and communism in the lead-up to World War II, continued to develop during the Cold War, and received a fresh impetus from the emergence of rogue states, international criminal organizations, global terrorist networks, maritime piracy and technological sabotage and espionage as potent threats to Western societies.[1] As a genre, spy fiction is thematically related to the novel of adventure (The Prisoner of Zenda, 1894, The Scarlet Pimpernel, 1905), the thriller (such as the works of Edgar Wallace) and the politico-military thriller (The Schirmer Inheritance, 1953, The Quiet American, 1955).[2][3]

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Nineteenth century
    • 1.2 During the First World War
    • 1.3 Inter-war period
    • 1.4 Second World War
    • 1.5 The early Cold War
      • 1.5.1 British
      • 1.5.2 American
    • 1.6 The later Cold War
      • 1.6.1 British
      • 1.6.2 American
      • 1.6.3 Writers of other nationalities
    • 1.7 Post–Cold War
    • 1.8 Post–9/11
  • 2 Insider spy fiction
  • 3 Spy television and cinema
    • 3.1 Cinema
    • 3.2 Television
  • 4 For children and adolescents
  • 5 Video games and theme parks
  • 6 Subgenres
  • 7 Notable writers
    • 7.1 Deceased
    • 7.2 Living
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links

History[edit]

Nineteenth century[edit]

Early examples of the espionage novel are The Spy (1821) and The Bravo (1831), by American novelist James Fenimore Cooper. The Bravo attacks European anti-republicanism, by depicting Venice as a city-state where a ruthless oligarchy wears the mask of the “serene republic”.

In nineteenth-century France, the Dreyfus Affair (1894–99) contributed much to public interest in espionage.[4] For some twelve years (ca. 1894–1906), the Affair, which involved elements of international espionage, treason, and antisemitism, dominated French politics. The details were reported by the world press: an Imperial German penetration agent betraying to Germany the secrets of the General Staff of the French Army; the French counter-intelligence riposte of sending a charwoman to rifle the trash in the German Embassy in Paris, were news that inspired successful spy fiction.[5]

The major themes of spy in the lead-up to the First World War were the continuing rivalry between the European colonial powers for control of Asia, the growing threat of conflict in Europe, the domestic threat of revolutionaries and anarchists, and historical romance.

Kim (1901) by Rudyard Kipling concerns the Anglo–Russian Great Game of imperial and geopolitical rivalry and strategic warfare for supremacy in Central Asia, usually in Afghanistan. The Secret Agent (1907) by Joseph Conrad examines the psychology and ideology motivating the socially marginal men and women of a revolutionary cell determined to provoke revolution in Britain with a terrorist bombing of the Greenwich Observatory. Conrad’s next novel, Under Western Eyes (1911), follows a reluctant spy sent by the Russian Empire to infiltrate a group of revolutionaries based in Geneva. G. K. Chesterton’s The Man Who Was Thursday (1908) is a metaphysical thriller ostensibly based on the infiltration of an anarchist organisation by detectives; but the story is actually a vehicle for exploring society’s power structures and the nature of suffering.

The fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, created by Arthur Conan Doyle, served as a spyhunter for Britain in the stories “The Adventure of the Second Stain” (1904), and “The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans” (1912). In “His Last Bow” (1917), he served Crown and country as a double agent, transmitting false intelligence to Imperial Germany on the eve of the Great War.

The Scarlet Pimpernel (1905) by Baroness Orczy chronicled an English aristocrat’s derring-do in rescuing French aristocrats from the Reign of Terror of the populist French Revolution (1789–99).

But the term “spy novel” was defined by The Riddle of the Sands (1903) by Irish author Erskine Childers.[citation needed] It described amateur spies discovering a German plan to invade Britain. Its success created a market for the invasion literature subgenre, which was flooded by imitators. William Le Queux and E. Phillips Oppenheim became the most widely read and most successful British writers of spy fiction, especially of invasion literature. Their prosaic style and formulaic stories, produced voluminously from 1900 to 1914, proved of low literary merit.

During the First World War[edit]

During the War, John Buchan became the pre-eminent British spy novelist. His well-written stories portray the Great War as a “clash of civilisations” between Western civilization and barbarism. His notable novels are The Thirty-nine Steps (1915), Greenmantle (1916) and sequels, all featuring the heroic Scotsman Richard Hannay. In France Gaston Leroux published the spy thriller Rouletabille chez Krupp (1917), in which a detective, Joseph Rouletabille, engages in espionage.

Inter-war period[edit]

After the Russian Revolution (1917), the quality of spy fiction declined, perhaps because the Bolshevik enemy won the Russian Civil War (1917–23). Thus, the inter-war spy story usually concerns combating the Red Menace, which was perceived as another “clash of civilizations”.

Spy fiction was dominated by British authors during this period, initially former intelligence officers and agents writing from inside the trade. Examples include Ashenden: Or the British Agent (1928) by W. Somerset Maugham, which accurately portrays spying in the First World War, and The Mystery of Tunnel 51 (1928) by Alexander Wilson whose novels convey an uncanny portrait of the first head of the Secret Intelligence Service, Mansfield Smith-Cumming, the original ‘C’.

At a more popular level, Leslie Charteris’ popular and long-running Saint series began, featuring Simon Templar, with Meet the Tiger (1928). Water on the Brain (1933) by former intelligence officer Compton Mackenzie was the first successful spy novel satire.[6] Prolific author Dennis Wheatley also wrote his first spy novel, The Eunuch of Stamboul (1935) during this period.

Second World War[edit]

The growing threat of fascism in Germany, Italy and Spain, and the imminence of war, attracted quality writers back to spy fiction.

British author Eric Ambler brought a new realism to spy fiction. The Dark Frontier (1936), Epitaph for a Spy (1938), The Mask of Dimitrios (US: A Coffin for Dimitrios, 1939), and Journey into Fear (1940) feature amateurs entangled in espionage. The politics and ideology are secondary to the personal story that involved the hero or heroine. Ambler’s Popular Front–period œuvre has a left-wing perspective about the personal consequences of “big picture” politics and ideology, which was notable, given spy fiction’s usual right-wards tilt in defence of the Establishment attitudes underpinning empire and imperialism. Ambler’s early novels Uncommon Danger (1937) and Cause for Alarm (1938), in which NKVD spies help the amateur protagonist survive, are especially remarkable among English-language spy fiction.

Above Suspicion (1939) by Helen MacInnes, about an anti-Nazi husband and wife spy team, features literate writing and fast-paced, intricate, and suspenseful stories occurring against contemporary historical backgrounds. MacInnes wrote many other spy novels in the course of a long career, including Assignment in Brittany (1942), Decision at Delphi (1961), and Ride a Pale Horse (1984).

Manning Coles published Drink to Yesterday (1940), a grim story occurring during the Great War, which introduces the hero Thomas Elphinstone Hambledon. However, later novels featuring Hambledon were lighter-toned, despite being set either in Nazi Germany or Britain during the Second World War (1939–45). After the War, the Hambledon adventures fell to formula, losing critical and popular interest.

The events leading up to the Second World War, and the War itself, continue to be fertile ground for authors of spy fiction. Notable examples include Ken Follett, Eye of the Needle (1978); Alan Furst, Night Soldiers (1988); and David Downing, the Station series, beginning with Zoo Station (2007).

The early Cold War[edit]

The metamorphosis of the Second World War (1939–45) into the Soviet–American Cold War (1945–91) gave new impetus to spy novelists. Atomsk by Paul Linebarger, written in 1948 and published in 1949, appears to be the first espionage novel of the dawning conflict.

British[edit]

With Secret Ministry (1951), Desmond Cory introduced Johnny Fedora, the secret agent with a licence to kill, the government-sanctioned assassin. Ian Fleming, a former member of naval intelligence, followed swiftly with the glamorous James Bond, secret agent 007 of the British Secret Service, a mixture of counter-intelligence officer, assassin and playboy. Perhaps the most famous fictional spy, Bond was introduced in Casino Royale (1953). After Fleming’s death the franchise continued under other British and American authors, including Kingsley Amis, Christopher Wood, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver and William Boyd.

Despite the commercial success of Fleming’s extravagant novels, John le Carré, himself a former spy, created anti-heroic protagonists who struggled with the ethical issues involved in espionage, and sometimes resorted to immoral tactics. Le Carré’s middle-class George Smiley is a middle-aged spy burdened with an unfaithful, upper-class wife who publicly cuckolds him for sport.

Like Le Carré, former British Intelligence officer Graham Greene also examined the morality of espionage in left-leaning, anti-imperialist novels such as The Heart of the Matter (1948), set in Sierra Leone, the seriocomic Our Man in Havana (1959) occurring in the Cuba of dictator Fulgencio Batista before his deposition by Fidel Castro’s popular Cuban Revolution (1953–59), and The Human Factor (1978) about British support for the apartheid National Party government of South Africa, against the Red Menace.

Other novelists followed a similar path. Len Deighton’s anonymous spy, protagonist of The IPCRESS File (1962), Horse Under Water (1963), Funeral in Berlin (1964), and others, is a working-class man with a negative view of the Establishment.

Other notable examples of espionage fiction during this period were also built around recurring characters. These include James Mitchell’s ‘John Craig’ series, written under his pseudonym ‘James Munro’, beginning with The Man Who Sold Death (1964); and Trevor Dudley-Smith’s Quiller spy novel series written under the pseudonym ‘Adam Hall’, beginning with The Berlin Memorandum (US: The Quiller Memorandum, 1965), a hybrid of glamour and dirt, Fleming and Le Carré; and William Garner’s fantastic Michael Jagger in Overkill (1966), The Deep, Deep Freeze (1968), The Us or Them War (1969) and A Big Enough Wreath (1974).

Other important British writers who first became active in spy fiction during this period include Padraig Manning O’Brine, Killers Must Eat (1951); Michael Gilbert, Be Shot for Sixpence (1956); Alistair MacLean, The Last Frontier (1959); Brian Cleeve, Assignment to Vengeance (1961); Jack Higgins, The Testament of Caspar Schulz (1962); and Desmond Skirrow, It Won’t Get You Anywhere (1966). Dennis Wheatley’s ‘Gregory Sallust’ (1934-1968) and ‘Roger Brook’ (1947-1974) series were also largely written during this period.

American[edit]

During the war E. Howard Hunt wrote his first spy novel, East of Farewell (1943). In 1949 he joined the recently created CIA, and continued to write spy fiction for many years. Paul Linebarger, a China specialist for the CIA, published Atomsk, the first novel of the Cold War, in 1949. In 1955, Edward S. Aarons began publishing the Sam Durell CIA “Assignment” series, which began with Assignment to Disaster (1955). Donald Hamilton published Death of a Citizen (1960) and The Wrecking Crew (1960), beginning the series featuring Matt Helm, a CIA assassin and counter-intelligence agent.

The Nick Carter-Killmaster series of spy novels, initiated by Michael Avallone and Valerie Moolman, but authored anonymously, ran to over 260 separate books between 1964 and the early 1990s and invariably pitted American, Soviet and Chinese spies against each other. With the proliferation of male protagonists in the spy fiction genre, writers and book packagers also started bringing out spy fiction with a female as the protagonist. One notable spy series is The Baroness, featuring a sexy female superspy, with the novels being more action-oriented, in the mould of Nick Carter-Killmaster.

Other important American authors who became active in spy fiction during this period include Ross Thomas, The Cold War Swap (1966).

The later Cold War[edit]

The June 1967 Six-Day War between Israel and its neighbours introduced new themes to espionage fiction – the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians, against the backdrop of continuing Cold War tensions, and the increasing use of terrorism as a political tool.

British[edit]

Notable recurring characters from this era include Adam Diment’s Philip McAlpine is a long-haired, hashish-smoking fop in the novels The Dolly Dolly Spy (1967), The Great Spy Race (1968), The Bang Bang Birds (1968) and Think, Inc. (1971); James Mitchell’s ‘David Callan’ series, written in his own name, beginning with Red File for Callan (1969); William Garner’s John Morpurgo in Think Big, Think Dirty (1983), Rats’ Alley (1984), and Zones of Silence (1986); and Joseph Hone’s ‘Peter Marlow’ series, beginning with The Private Sector (1971), set during Israel’s Six-Day War (1967) against Egypt, Jordan and Syria. In all of these series the writing is literary and the tradecraft believable.

Noteworthy examples of the journalistic style and successful integration of fictional characters with historical events were the politico–military novels The Day of the Jackal (1971) by Frederick Forsyth and Eye of the Needle (1978) by Ken Follett. With the explosion of technology, Craig Thomas, launched the techno-thriller with Firefox (1977), describing the Anglo–American theft of a superior Soviet jet aeroplane.

Other important British writers who first became active in spy fiction during this period include Ian Mackintosh, A Slaying in September (1967); Kenneth Benton, Twenty-fourth Level (1969); Desmond Bagley, Running Blind (1970); Anthony Price, The Labyrinth Makers (1971); Gerald Seymour, Harry’s Game (1975); Brian Freemantle, Charlie M (1977); Bryan Forbes, Familiar Strangers (1979); Reginald Hill, The Spy’s Wife (1980); and Raymond Harold Sawkins, writing as Colin Forbes, Double Jeopardy (1982).

American[edit]

The Scarlatti Inheritance (1971) by Robert Ludlum is usually considered the first American modern (glamour and dirt) spy thriller weighing action and reflection. In the 1970s, former CIA man Charles McCarry began the Paul Christopher series with The Miernik Dossier (1973) and The Tears of Autumn (1978), which were well written, with believable tradecraft.

The first American techno-thriller was The Hunt for Red October (1984) by Tom Clancy. It introduced CIA deskman (analyst) Jack Ryan as a field agent; he reprised the role in the sequel The Cardinal of the Kremlin (1987).

Other important American authors who became active in spy fiction during this period include Robert Littell, The Defection of A. J. Lewinter (1973); James Grady, Six Days of the Condor (1974); William F. Buckley Jr., Saving the Queen (1976); Nelson DeMille, The Talbot Odyssey (1984); W. E. B. Griffin, the Men at War series (1984–); Stephen Coonts, Flight of the Intruder (1986); Canadian-American author David Morrell, The League of Night and Fog (1987); David Hagberg, Without Honor (1989); Noel Hynd, False Flags (1990); and Richard Ferguson, Oiorpata (1990).

Writers of other nationalities[edit]

French journalist Gérard de Villiers began to write his SAS series in 1965. The franchise now extends to 200 titles and 150 million books.

Julian Semyonov was an influential spy novelist, writing in the Eastern Bloc, whose range of novels and novel series featured a White Russian spy in the USSR; Max Otto von Stierlitz, a Soviet mole in the Nazi High Command, and Felix Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka. In his novels, Semyonov covered much Soviet intelligence history, ranging from the Russian Civil War (1917–1923), through the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), to the Russo–American Cold War (1945–91).

Swedish author Jan Guillou also began to write his Coq Rouge series, featuring Swedish spy Carl Hamilton, during this period, beginning in 1986.

Post–Cold War[edit]

The end of the Cold War in 1991 mooted the USSR, Russia and other Iron Curtain countries as credible enemies of democracy, and the US Congress even considered disestablishing the CIA. Espionage novelists found themselves at a temporary loss for obvious nemeses. The New York Times ceased publishing a spy novel review column. Nevertheless, counting on the aficionado, publishers continued to issue spy novels by writers popular during the Cold War era, among them Harlot’s Ghost (1991) by Norman Mailer.

In the US, the new novels Moscow Club (1991) by Joseph Finder, Coyote Bird (1993) by Jim DeFelice, Masquerade (1996) by Gayle Lynds, and The Unlikely Spy (1996) by Daniel Silva maintained the spy novel in the post–Cold War world. Other important American authors who first became active in spy fiction during this period include David Ignatius, Agents of Innocence (1997); David Baldacci, Saving Faith (1999); and Vince Flynn, with Term Limits (1999) and a series of novels featuring counter-terrorism expert Mitch Rapp.

In the UK, Robert Harris entered the spy genre with Enigma (1995). Other important British authors who became active during this period include Hugh Laurie, The Gun Seller (1996); Andy McNab, Remote Control (1998); Henry Porter, Remembrance Day (2000); and Charles Cumming, A Spy By Nature (2001).

Post–9/11[edit]

The terrorist attacks against the US on 11 September 2001, and the subsequent War on Terror, reawakened interest in the peoples and politics of the world beyond its borders. Espionage genre elders such as John le Carré, Frederick Forsyth, Robert Littell, and Charles McCarry resumed work, and many new authors emerged.

Important British writers who wrote their first spy novels during this period include Stephen Leather, Hard Landing (2004); and William Boyd, Restless (2006).

New American writers include Brad Thor, The Lions of Lucerne (2002); Ted Bell, Hawke (2003); Alex Berenson, with John Wells appearing for the first time in The Faithful Spy (2006); Brett Battles, The Cleaner (2007); Ellis Goodman, Bear Any Burden (2008); Olen Steinhauer, The Tourist (2009); and Richard Ferguson, Oiorpata (2012). A number of other established writers began to write spy fiction for the first time, including Kyle Mills, Fade (2005) and James Patterson, Private (2010).

Swede Stieg Larsson, who died in 2004, was the world’s second best-selling author for 2008 due to his Millennium series, featuring Lisbeth Salander, published posthumously between 2005 and 2007. Other authors of note include Australian James Phelan, beginning with Fox Hunt (2010).

Recognising the importance of the thriller genre, including spy fiction, International Thriller Writers (ITW) was established in 2004, and held its first conference in 2006.

Insider spy fiction[edit]

Many authors of spy fiction have themselves been intelligence officers working for British agencies such as MI5 or MI6, or American agencies such as the OSS or its successor, the CIA. ‘Insider’ spy fiction has a special claim to authenticity, and overlaps with biographical and other documentary accounts of secret service.

The first insider fiction emerged after World War 1 as the thinly disguised reminiscences of former British intelligence officers such as W. Somerset Maugham, Alexander Wilson, and Compton Mackenzie. The tradition continued during World War II with Helen MacInnes and Manning Coles.

Notable British examples from the Cold War period and beyond include Ian Fleming, John le Carré, Graham Greene, Brian Cleeve, Ian Mackintosh, Kenneth Benton, Bryan Forbes, Andy McNab and Chris Ryan. Notable American examples include Charles McCarry, William F. Buckley Jr., W. E. B. Griffin and David Hagberg.

Many post-9/11 period novels are written by insiders.[7] At the CIA, the number of manuscripts submitted for pre-publication vetting doubled between 1998 and 2005.[8] American examples include Barry Eisler, A Clean Kill in Tokyo (2002); Charles Gillen, Saigon Station (2003); R J Hillhouse, Rift Zone (2004); Gene Coyle, The Dream Merchant of Lisbon (2004) and No Game For Amateurs (2009); Thomas F. Murphy, Edge of Allegiance (2005); Mike Ramsdell, A Train to Potevka (2005); T. H. E. Hill, Voices Under Berlin (2008); Duane Evans, North from Calcutta (2009); Jason Matthews, Red Sparrow (2013).;[7][9] and T.L. Williams, Zero Day: China’s Cyber Wars (2017).

British examples include The Code Snatch (2001) by Alan Stripp, formerly a cryptographer at Bletchley Park; At Risk (2004), Secret Asset (2006), Illegal Action (2007), and Dead Line (2008), by Dame Stella Rimington (Director General of MI5 from 1992 to 1996); and Matthew Dunn’s Spycatcher (2011) and sequels.

Spy television and cinema[edit]

Cinema[edit]

Much spy fiction was adapted as spy films in the 1960s, ranging from the fantastical James Bond series to the realistic The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1965), and the hybrid The Quiller Memorandum (1966). While Hamilton’s Matt Helm novels were adult and well written, their cinematic interpretations were adolescent parody. This phenomenon spread widely in Europe in the 1960s and is known as the Eurospy genre.

English-language spy films of the 2000s include The Bourne Identity (2002), Mission: Impossible (1996); Munich (2005), Syriana (2005), and The Constant Gardener (2005).

Among the comedy films focusing on espionage are 1974’s S*P*Y*S and 1985’s Spies Like Us.

In March 2015, filming of Howard Kaplan’s best selling “The Damascus Cover” as Damascus Cover wrapped in Casablanca starring Jonathan Rhys Meyers, John Hurt, Jurgen Prochnow and Olivia Thirlby. It is set in Damascus and Jerusalem circa 1989 at the time of the Berlin Wall falling.

Television[edit]

The American adaptation of Casino Royale (1954) featured Jimmy Bond in an episode of the Climax! anthology series. The narrative tone of television espionage ranged from the drama of Danger Man (1960–68) to the sardonicism of The Man from U.N.C.L.E (1964–68) and the flippancy of I Spy (1965–68) until the exaggeration, akin to that of William Le Queux and E. Phillips Oppenheim before the First World War (1914–18), degenerated to the parody of Get Smart (1965–70).

In 1973, Semyonov’s novel Seventeen Moments of Spring (1968) was adapted to television as a twelve-part mini-series about the Soviet spy Maksim Isaev operating in wartime Nazi Germany as Max Otto von Stierlitz, charged with preventing a separate peace between Nazi Germany and America which would exclude the USSR. The programme TASS Is Authorized to Declare… also derives from his work.

However, the circle closed in the late 1970s when The Sandbaggers (1978–80) presented the grit and bureaucracy of espionage.

In the 1980s, US television featured the light espionage programmes Airwolf (1984–87) and MacGyver (1985–92), each rooted in the Cold War yet reflecting American citizens’ distrust of their government, after the crimes of the Nixon Government (the internal, political espionage of the Watergate Scandal and the Vietnam War) were exposed. The spy heroes were independent of government; MacGyver, in later episodes and post-DXS employment, works for a non-profit, private think tank, and aviator Hawke and two friends work free-lance adventures. Although each series features an intelligence agency, the DXS in MacGyver, and the FIRM, in Airwolf, its agents could alternately serve as adversaries as well as allies for the heroes.

Television espionage programmes of the late 1990s to the early 2010s include La Femme Nikita (1997–2001), Alias (2001–2006), 24 (2001-2010, 2014), Spooks in the UK (release as MI-5 in the USA and Canada) (2002-2011), CBBC’s The Secret Show (2006-2011), NBC’s Chuck (2007-2012), FX’s Archer (2009–present), Burn Notice, Covert Affairs, Homeland and The Americans.

In 2015, Deutschland 83 is a German television series starring a 24-year-old native of East Germany who is sent to the West as an undercover spy for the HVA, the foreign intelligence agency of the Stasi.

For children and adolescents[edit]

In every medium, spy thrillers introduce children and adolescents to deception and espionage at earlier ages. The genre ranges from action adventure, such as Chris Ryan’s Alpha Force series, through the historical espionage dramas of Y. S. Lee, to the girl orientation of Ally Carter’s Gallagher Girls series, beginning with I’d Tell You I Love You, But Then I’d Have to Kill You.

Leading examples include the Agent Cody Banks film, the Alex Rider adventure novels by Anthony Horowitz, and the CHERUB series, by Robert Muchamore. Ben Allsop, one of England’s youngest novelists, also writes spy fiction. His titles include Sharp and The Perfect Kill.

Spy-related films that are aimed towards younger audiences include movies such as the Spy Kids series of films and The Spy Next Door.

Other authors writing for adolescents include A. J. Butcher, Joe Craig, Charlie Higson, Andy McNab and Francine Pascal.

Video games and theme parks[edit]

In contemporary digital video games, the player can be a vicarious spy, as in the Metal Gear series, especially in the series’ third installment, Metal Gear Solid, unlike the games of the Third-Person Shooter genre, Syphon Filter, and Splinter Cell. The games feature complex stories and cinematic images. Games such as No One Lives Forever and the sequel No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy in H.A.R.M.’s Way humorously combine espionage and 1960s design. Evil Genius (game), contemporary to NOLF series, allows the player to be the villain and its strategy occurs real time.

The Spyland espionage theme park, in the Gran Scala pleasure dome, in Zaragoza province, Spain, opened in 2012.

Subgenres[edit]

  • Spy comedy: usually parody the clichés and camp elements characteristic to the espionage genre.
  • Spy horror: spy fiction with horror fiction.
  • Spy-Fi: spy fiction with elements of science fiction.

Notable writers[edit]

Deceased[edit]

  • Edward Aarons
  • Eric Ambler
  • Desmond Bagley
  • Kenneth Benton
  • John Buchan
  • William F. Buckley Jr.
  • Leslie Charteris
  • Erskine Childers
  • Tom Clancy
  • Andrew Britton
  • Brian Cleeve
  • Manning Coles
  • Jonathan de Shalit
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
  • Joseph Conrad
  • James Fenimore Cooper
  • Desmond Cory
  • Ian Fleming
  • Vince Flynn
  • Bryan Forbes
  • Colin Forbes
  • John Gardner
  • William Garner
  • Michael Gilbert
  • Graham Greene
  • Adam Hall
  • Donald Hamilton
  • Reginald Hill
  • E. Howard Hunt
  • Rudyard Kipling
  • Stieg Larsson
  • Gaston Leroux
  • Paul Linebarger
  • Robert Ludlum
  • Helen MacInnes
  • Ian Mackintosh
  • Alistair MacLean
  • Norman Mailer
  • Somerset Maugham
  • James Munro
  • Manning O’Brine
  • E. Phillips Oppenheim
  • Baroness Orczy
  • Anthony Price
  • William le Queux
  • Ibn-e-Safi
  • Raymond Harold Sawkins
  • Desmond Skirrow
  • Cordwainer Smith
  • Craig Thomas
  • Ross Thomas
  • Gérard de Villiers
  • Dennis Wheatley
  • Alexander Wilson

Living[edit]

  • David Baldacci
  • Brett Battles
  • Ted Bell
  • Raymond Benson
  • Alex Berenson
  • William Boyd
  • Sean Buckley
  • A. J. Butcher
  • John le Carré
  • Ally Carter
  • Stephen Coonts
  • Gene Coyle
  • Joe Craig
  • Charles Cumming
  • Jeffery Deaver
  • Jim DeFelice
  • Len Deighton
  • Nelson DeMille
  • Adam Diment
  • David Downing
  • Matthew Dunn
  • Barry Eisler
  • Duane Evans
  • Joseph Finder
  • Richard Ferguson
  • Charlie Flowers
  • Ken Follett
  • Frederick Forsyth
  • Brian Freemantle
  • Alan Furst
  • Charles E. Gillen
  • Ellis Goodman
  • James Grady
  • W. E. B. Griffin
  • John Griffin
  • Jan Guillou
  • David Hagberg
  • Robert Harris
  • Mick Herron
  • Jack Higgins
  • Charlie Higson
  • T. H. E. Hill
  • R J Hillhouse
  • Joseph Hone
  • Anthony Horowitz
  • Noel Hynd
  • David Ignatius
  • Hugh Laurie
  • Stephen Leather
  • Y. S. Lee
  • Robert Littell
  • Gayle Lynds
  • Jason Matthews
  • Charles McCarry
  • Andy McNab
  • Kyle Mills
  • David Morrell
  • Robert Muchamore
  • Thomas F. Murphy
  • James Patterson
  • James Phelan
  • Henry Porter
  • Mike Ramsdell
  • Stella Rimington
  • Chris Ryan
  • Gerald Seymour
  • Daniel Silva
  • Olen Steinhauer
  • Alan Stripp
  • Khaled Talib (Smokescreen)
  • Brad Thor
  • Qazi Anwar Hussain
  • T.L. Williams

See also[edit]

  • History of espionage
  • Spy-fi
  • Spy film
  • List of fictional secret agents
  • List of thriller writers
  • Thriller (genre)
  • List of genres

Notes[edit]

  • ^ Brett F. Woods, Neutral Ground: A Political History of Espionage Fiction (2008) online
  • ^ Cuddon, J. A. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory, Third Edition (1991) pp. 908–09.
  • ^ Drabble, Margaret. The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Sixth Edition (2000) pp. 962–63.
  • ^ Cook, Chris. Dictionary of Historical Terms (1983) p. 95.
  • ^ Toby Miller, Spyscreen: Espionage on Film and TV from the 1930s to the 1960s Oxford University Press, 2003 .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 0-19-815952-8 p. 40-41
  • ^ ” Water On the Brain”. Fantastic Fiction. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  • ^ a b “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  • ^ Shane, Scott (15 March 2005). “Ex-Spies Tell It All”. New York Times.
  • ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/pdfs/U-%20Bookshelf%2028-Sep2009-web.pdf
  • References[edit]

    .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}

    • Aronoff, Myron J. The Spy Novels of John Le Carré: Balancing Ethics and Politics (1999).
    • Britton, Wesley. Spy Television. The Prager Television Collection. Series Ed. David Bianculli. Westport, CT and London: Praeger, 2004. ISBN 0-275-98163-0.
    • Britton, Wesley. Beyond Bond: Spies in Fiction and Film. Westport, CT and London: Praeger, 2005. ISBN 0-275-98556-3.
    • Britton, Wesley. Onscreen & Undercover: The Ultimate Book of Movie Espionage. Westport, CT and London: Praeger, 2006. ISBN 0-275-99281-0.
    • Cawelti, John G. The Spy Story (1987)
    • Priestman, Martin, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Crime Fiction (2003).

    External links[edit]

    • Spy Fiction Iliad, Henry V, The Spy, The Riddle of the Sands, The Thirty-Nine Steps, Greenmantle
    • Spy Guys and Gals
    • Spy-Wise, spy fiction website.
    • WorldCat Spy Stories


    DI SOTTO IN SÙ

    https://vimeo.com/103507431!.?.!A video that deals explicitly with public room as well as concerns our day-to-day assumption and experience of this social area. The work equilibriums between figuration and abstraction, changes the customers attention of the everyday. The ubiquitous method is the lead character too in vision as in noise.’ Di sotto in sù’ is a term stemming from Italian Renaissance which indicates’ seen from below’. It was utilized for ceiling paintings in which a strong impression of area is suggested. The ceilings in this video nevertheless, were never meant to be checked out, but rather for being looked by. Besides the parallel which is made in between imposing ceiling paints and also indoctrinating systems of surveillance, is this too a sight on a fascinating globe that passes us by daily, of which we are usually unaware. SCREENED- Festival Construction 2015: form as well as material. Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
    . September 7-12, 2015 EVALUATED- CyBorg Film Festival VIII- circuito CyBorg Off. Anghiari, Italy
    . July 2015 EVALUATED -Group exhibit, RADION, Amsterdam. Exhibitors: Studio Pascal Smelik, Evelien Nijeboer, Adzer van der Molen, Roberto Voorbij.

    Private Surveillance Is a Lethal Weapon Anybody Can Buy

    Private Surveillance Is a Lethal Weapon Anybody Can Buy

    Is it too late to rein it in?

    I’m a Judge. Here’s How Surveillance Is Challenging Our Legal System.

    Prosecutors have stepped into the void left by Congress’s failure to say how far the police can go in using investigative technology.

    John Anthony Walker

    For other people with the same name, see John Walker.
    American spy for Soviet Union

    John Anthony Walker Jr. (July 28, 1937 – August 28, 2014) was a United States Navy chief warrant officer and communications specialist convicted of spying for the Soviet Union from 1968 to 1985.[2]

    In late 1985, Walker made a plea bargain with federal prosecutors, which required him to testify against his co-conspirator, former senior chief petty officer Jerry Whitworth, and provide full details of his espionage activities. In exchange, prosecutors agreed to a lesser sentence for Walker’s son, former Seaman Michael Walker, who was also involved in the spy ring.[2] During his time as a Soviet spy, Walker helped the Soviets decipher more than one million encrypted naval messages,[3] organizing a spy operation that The New York Times reported in 1987 “is sometimes described as the most damaging Soviet spy ring in history.”[4]

    After Walker’s arrest, Caspar Weinberger, President Ronald Reagan’s Secretary of Defense, concluded that the Soviet Union made significant gains in naval warfare attributable to Walker’s spying. Weinberger stated that the information Walker gave Moscow allowed the Soviets “access to weapons and sensor data and naval tactics, terrorist threats, and surface, submarine, and airborne training, readiness and tactics.”[5] John Lehman, United States Secretary of the Navy during the Reagan administration, stated in an interview that Walker’s activities enabled the Soviets to know where U.S. submarines were at all times. Lehman said the Walker espionage would have resulted in huge loss of American lives in the event of war.[citation needed]

    In the June 2010 issue of Naval History Magazine, John Prados, a senior fellow with the National Security Archive in Washington, D.C., pointed out that after Walker introduced himself to Soviet officials, North Korean forces seized USS Pueblo in order to make better use of Walker’s spying. Prados added that North Korea subsequently shared information gleaned from the spy ship with the Soviets, enabling them to build replicas and gain access to the U.S. naval communications system, which continued until the system was completely revamped in the late 1980s.[6] It has emerged in recent years that North Korea acted alone and the incident actually harmed North Korea’s relations with most of the Eastern Bloc.[7]

    Contents

    • 1 Early life
    • 2 Spy ring
    • 3 Arrest and imprisonment
    • 4 Death
    • 5 See also
    • 6 References
    • 7 Further reading

    Early life[edit]

    Walker was born in Washington, D.C., on July 28, 1937, and he attended high school in Scranton, Pennsylvania.[1] When arrested for burglary, he was offered the option of jail or the military;[1][8] he enlisted in the Navy in 1955. While stationed in Boston, Walker met and married Barbara Crowley, and they had four children together, three daughters and a son. While stationed on the nuclear-powered Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) submarine USS Andrew Jackson in Charleston, South Carolina, Walker opened a bar, which failed to turn a profit and immediately plunged him into debt.[1]

    Spy ring[edit]

    Walker began spying for the Soviets in late 1967,[9][10] when, distraught over his financial difficulties, he walked into the old Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C., sold a top secret document (a radio cipher card) for several thousand dollars, and negotiated an ongoing salary of $500 to $1,000 a week.[1] Walker justified his treachery by claiming that the first classified Navy communications data he sold to the Soviets had already been completely compromised when the North Koreans had captured the U.S. Navy communications surveillance ship, USS Pueblo.[11] Yet the Koreans captured Pueblo in late January 1968 – many weeks after Walker had betrayed the information.[9] Furthermore, a 2001 thesis presented at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College using information obtained from Soviet archives and from Oleg Kalugin, indicated that the Pueblo incident may have taken place because the Soviets wanted to study equipment described in documents supplied to them by Walker.[12] It has emerged in recent years that North Korea acted alone and the incident actually harmed North Korea’s relations with most of the Eastern Bloc.[7]

    Walker continued spying, receiving an income of several thousand dollars per month for supplying classified information. Walker used most of the money to pay off his delinquent debts and to move his family into better neighborhoods, but he also set aside some for future investment, such as turning around the fortunes of his money-losing bar by hiring a skilled bartender.[1] While Walker occasionally used the services of his wife, Barbara Walker, he anticipated the possibility of losing access due to reassignment. Walker’s chance to seek further assistance came in 1969 when he was stationed to teach radio operators in San Diego, California. There, Walker befriended student Jerry Whitworth.[1] Whitworth, who would become a Navy senior chief petty officer/senior chief radioman, agreed to help Walker gain access to highly classified communications data in 1973.[1] A transfer had stopped Walker’s access to the data the Soviets wanted, but he recruited Whitworth to keep the data flowing – softening the idea of espionage by telling him the data would go to Israel, an ally of the United States. Later, when Whitworth realized the data was going to the Soviets instead of Israel, he nonetheless continued supplying Walker with information, until Whitworth’s retirement from the Navy in 1983.

    In 1976, Walker retired from the Navy in order to give up his security clearance, as he believed certain superior officers of his were too keen on investigating lapses in his records. Walker and Barbara had also divorced. However, Walker did not end his espionage, and began looking more aggressively among his children and family members for assistance (Walker was a private investigator during this time). By 1984, he had recruited his older brother Arthur, a retired Lieutenant Commander who then went to work at a military contractor, and his son Michael, an active duty seaman.[1] Walker had also attempted to recruit his youngest daughter, who had enlisted in the United States Army, but she cut her military career short when she became pregnant and refused her father’s offer to pay for an abortion, instead deciding to devote herself to full-time motherhood. Walker then turned his attention to his son, who had drifted during much of his teenage years and dropped out of high school. Walker gained custody of his son, put him to work as an apprentice at his detective agency in order to prepare him for espionage and encouraged him to re-enroll in high school to earn a diploma, then to enlist in the Navy.

    When Walker began spying, he worked as a key supervisor in the communications center for the U.S. Atlantic Fleet’s submarine force, and he would have had knowledge of top secret technologies, such as the SOSUS underwater surveillance system, which tracks underwater acoustics via a network of submerged hydrophones.[13][14] It was through Walker that the Soviets became aware that the U.S. Navy was able to track the location of Soviet submarines by the cavitation produced by their propellers. After this, the propellers on the Soviet submarines were improved to reduce cavitation.[15] The Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal was disclosed in this activity in 1987.[16] It is also alleged that Walker’s actions precipitated the seizure of USS Pueblo. CIA historian H. Keith Melton states on the show Top Secrets of the CIA, which aired on the Military Channel, among other occasions, at 0400CST, February 5, 2013:

    [The Soviets] had intercepted our coded messages, but they had never been able to read them. And with Walker providing the code cards, this was one-half of what they needed to read the messages. The other half they needed were the machines themselves. Though Walker could give them repair manuals, he couldn’t give them machines. So, within a month of John Walker volunteering his services, the Soviets arranged, through the North Koreans, to hijack a United States Navy ship with its cipher machines, and that was the USS Pueblo. And in early 1968 they captured the Pueblo, they took it into Wonsan Harbor, they quickly took the machines off … flew ’em to Moscow. Now Moscow had both parts of the puzzles. They had the machine and they had an American spy, in place, in Norfolk, with the code cards and with access to them.

    In 1990, The New York Times journalist John J. O’Connor reported, “It’s been estimated by some intelligence experts that Mr. Walker provided enough code-data information to alter significantly the balance of power between Russia and the United States”.[17] Asked later how he had managed to access so much classified information, Walker said, “KMart has better security than the Navy”.[18] According to a report presented to the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive in 2002, Walker is one of a handful of spies believed to have earned more than a million dollars in espionage compensation,[8] although The New York Times estimated his income at only $350,000.[17]

    Theodore Shackley, the CIA station chief in Saigon, asserted that Walker’s espionage may have contributed to diminished B-52 bombing strikes, that the forewarning gleaned from Walker’s espionage directly affected the United States’ effectiveness in Vietnam.[citation needed]
    Independent analysis of Walker’s methods by an American Naval officer in Cold War London, Lieutenant Commander David Winters, led to operational introduction of technologies that finally closed security gaps previously exploited by the Walker spy ring. (See OTAR.)

    Arrest and imprisonment[edit]

    John and Barbara Walker divorced in 1976. Their marriage was marked by physical abuse and alcohol. By 1980 Barbara had begun regularly abusing alcohol and was very fearful for her children. She wanted the children not to become involved in the spy ring, and that led to constant disagreement with John. Barbara tried several times to contact the Boston office of the FBI, but she either hung up or was too drunk to speak. In November 1984 she again contacted the Boston office and in a drunken confession reported that her ex-husband spied for the Soviet Union. She did not then know that Michael had become an active participant, and later admitted she would not have reported the spy ring had she known her son was involved.[1]

    The Boston office of the FBI interviewed Barbara Walker and initially considered her story to be the rantings of a drunken, bitter woman trying to “drop a dime” on an ex-husband. Since Barbara’s report regarded a person who lived in Virginia, the Boston office sent the report to the Norfolk office. When the FBI in Norfolk reviewed the report the counterintelligence squad concluded it might be a truthful report and initiated a discreet investigation. The FBI conducted an interview of Walker’s daughter, Laura, who confirmed that her father was a KGB spy and said that he had tried to recruit her into his espionage ring while she was in the U.S. Army.

    When both Barbara Walker and Laura Walker passed polygraph examinations, electronic surveillance was authorized by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court against John Walker. In May 1985 the FBI learned through the electronic surveillance that it was likely that John Walker would travel out of town on the weekend of May 18 and 19, 1985. On May 19 Walker left his house in Norfolk and was followed covertly by the FBI to the Washington, D.C., area, where the surveillance was joined by personnel from the FBI’s Washington field office. Later that evening about 8:30 p.m. he drove to a rural area in Montgomery County, Maryland, where he was seen placing a package in a wooded area near a “No Hunting” sign. The FBI retrieved the package that was found to have 124 pages of classified information stolen from the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz, where Walker’s son, Michael, was assigned. John Walker was arrested during the early morning hours of May 20, 1985, by a team of agents from the Norfolk and Washington FBI field offices. The FBI apprehended Walker himself at a motel in Montgomery County, Maryland, by using, ironically, a trick he had used to catch people in adultery cases—that is, by telephoning his hotel room and telling him that his car had been hit in an accident.[1] Barbara Walker was not prosecuted because of her role in disclosing the ring.[1][8] Former KGB agent Victor Cherkashin, however, describes in his book Spy Handler that Walker was compromised by FBI spy Valery Martynov, who overheard officials in Moscow speaking about Walker.[19]

    Michael Walker was arrested aboard Nimitz, where investigators found a footlocker full of copies of classified matter. He had to be taken off his ship under guard to avoid getting beaten by sailors and Marines. Arthur Walker and Jerry Whitworth were arrested by the FBI in Norfolk, Virginia, and Sacramento, California, respectively. Arthur Walker was the first member of the espionage ring to go to trial. During the arrest of Arthur Walker, he was read his rights and repeatedly told he needed to stay silent until he could retain a lawyer, but kept admitting complicity in an effort to “show remorse”. He was tried, convicted, and sentenced to three life sentences in a federal district court in Norfolk.

    Walker cooperated somewhat with authorities, enough to form a plea bargain that reduced the sentence for his son. He agreed to submit to an unchallenged conviction and life sentence, to provide a full disclosure of the details of his spying, and to testify against Whitworth in exchange for a pledge from the prosecutors that the maximum sentence requested for Michael was 25 years imprisonment, which was later Michael’s sentence.[2][20] All the members of the spy ring besides Michael Walker received life sentences for their role in the espionage. Whitworth was sentenced to 365 years in prison and fined $410,000 for his involvement. Whitworth is now incarcerated at the United States Penitentiary, Atwater, a high-security federal prison in California. Walker’s older brother Arthur received three life sentences plus 40 years and died in the Butner Federal Correctional Complex in Butner, North Carolina on July 5, 2014, six weeks before the death of his younger brother.[21]

    Walker’s son, Michael, who had a relatively minor role in the ring, and who agreed to testify in exchange for a reduced sentence, was released from prison on parole in February 2000.[1]

    Walker was incarcerated at FCC Butner, in the low security portion.[22] He was said to suffer from diabetes mellitus and stage 4 throat cancer.[1][23]

    Death[edit]

    Walker died of unknown causes on August 28, 2014 while still in prison.[24] He would have become eligible for parole in 2015.[25]

    See also[edit]

    • United States portal
    • Politics portal
    • Biography portal
    • Soviet Union portal
    • KL-7 “Adonis” cipher machine (U.S. Navy 1950s – 1970s)
    • KW-37 “Jason” cipher system (U.S. Navy 1950s – 1990s)
    • USS Niagara Falls (AFS-3), a ship that Walker served on as CMS custodian
    • Hans-Thilo Schmidt
    • List of unsolved deaths
    • 1985: The Year of the Spy
    • Blind Man’s Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage — a book that includes a description of the Walker spy ring role in its dangerous compromise of technical secrets of some of the vital tactical capabilities of U.S. Navy nuclear submarines and critical covert intelligence gathering operations during the Cold War.
    • Family of Spies — TV movie based on John Walker’s treason.
    • Hitori Kumagai

    References[edit]

  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Earley, Pete. “Family of Spies: The John Walker Jr. Spy Case”. CourtTV. Archived from the original on February 9, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ a b c d “Recent U.S. Spy Cases | CNN”. CNN. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved February 25, 2017. 1985 — Walker family
  • ^ 米海軍スパイ事件の教訓 070630aquisionresearch_spring Archived July 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine 「防衛取得研究」(第一巻 第一号)(平成19年06月)<PDF>
  • ^ Shenon, Philip. (January 4, 1987) In short: nonfiction. NY Times. Accessed November 16, 2007.
  • ^ “The Navy’s Biggest Betrayal – U.S. Naval Institute”. www.usni.org. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  • ^ Prados, John. The Navy’s Biggest Betrayal. Naval History 24, no. 3 (June 2010): 36.
  • ^ a b Lerner, Mitchell; Shin, Jong-Dae (April 20, 2012). “New Romanian Evidence on the Blue House Raid and the USS Pueblo Incident. NKIDP e-Dossier No. 5”. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  • ^ a b c Herbig, Katherine L. and Martin F. Wiskoff. (July 2002) Espionage against the United States by American citizens, 1947-2001. FAS website. Accessed August 1, 2015.
  • ^ a b Pete Earley (1989). Family of Spies: Inside the John Walker Spy Ring. Bantam Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-553-28222-1.
  • ^ Sontag, Sherry; Drew, Christopher; Annette Lawrence Drew (1998). Blind Man’s Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage (paperback reprint ed.). HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-103004-X. OCLC 42633517.
  • ^ KW-7 and John Walker John Walker USS Pueblo
  • ^ Heath, Laura J. Analysis of the Systemic Security Weaknesses of the U.S. Navy Fleet Broadcasting System, 1967–1974, as Exploited by CWO John Walker (PDF) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Master’s Thesis. 2005.
  • ^ “The John Walker Spy Case: Secrets of the Deep Agent May be Linked to USS Pueblo”. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. May 18, 1986.[dead link]
  • ^ Cold War Strategic ASW Cold War Strategic ASW Archived June 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine UNDERSEAWARFARE
  • ^ “Eaglespeak”.
  • ^ A. FACTUAL BACKGROUND THE TOSHIBA-KONGSBERG INCIDENT Archived January 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine II. THE TOSHIBA-KONGSBERG INCIDENT
  • ^ a b O’Connor, John J. (February 4, 1990) TV View; American spies in pursuit of the American dream NY Times. Accessed November 16, 2007.
  • ^ Johnson, Reuben F. (July 23, 2007) The ultimate export control: why F-14s are being put into a shredder The Weekly Standard. Volume 012, Issue 42. Accessed November 16, 2007.
  • ^ Cherkashin, Victor. Spy Handler. New York: Basic Books, 2005. (Page 183)
  • ^ Time, Belated concern, Time Inc. (November 11, 1985) Accessed November 16, 2007.
  • ^ Watson, Denise M; King, Lauren (July 10, 2014). “Convicted spy Arthur Walker dies in prison in N.C.” Virginian Pilot. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  • ^ “Inmate Locator”. www.bop.gov. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  • ^ How to Publish a Book by an Odious Person The Washington Post. Accessed August 26, 2013.
  • ^ “John A. Walker”. timenote.info. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  • ^ Denise M. Watson (August 29, 2014). “Spy ring mastermind John Walker dies in N.C. prison”. PilotOnline.com. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
  • Further reading[edit]

    • Thomas B. Allen and Norman Polmar; Merchants of Treason: America’s Secrets for Sale: New York: Delacorte Press, 1988, ISBN 0-385-29591-X (about half of the book is devoted to the Walker case)
    • John Barron; Breaking the Ring: The Bizarre Case of the Walker Family Spy Ring; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987, ISBN 0-395-42110-1
    • Howard Blum; I Pledge Allegiance: The True Story of the Walkers: an American Spy Family; Simon & Schuster Books, 1987, ISBN 0-671-62614-0
    • Kneece, Jack; Family Treason: The Walker Spy Case; Paperjacks, 1988, ISBN 0-7701-0793-1
    • Robert W. Hunter; Spy Hunter: Inside the FBI Investigation of the Walker Espionage Case; Naval Institute Press, 1999, ISBN 1-55750-349-4
    • Pete Earley; Family of Spies: Inside the John Walker Spy Ring; Bantam Books, 1989, ISBN 0-553-28222-0
    • “The Navy’s Biggest Betrayal”, Naval History Magazine
    • Offley, Ed; Scorpion Down: The Untold Story of the USS Scorpion; Chapter 12 “The Fatal Triangle”; New York, Basic Books, 2007, ISBN 978-0-465-05185-4
    • Walker, John Anthony; My Life as a Spy; Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 2008, ISBN 978-1-59102-659-4
    • Walker, Laura; Daughter of Deceit: The Human Drama Behind the Walker Spy Case; W Pub Group, 1988, ISBN 978-0849906596

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